48 terms

APUSH Chapter 15 Review

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Myth of "Lost Cause"
A literary and intellectual movement that sought to reconcile the traditional Southern white society to the defeat of the Confederate States of America
Freedman's Bureau
The bureau's focus was to provide food, medical care, administer justice, manage abandoned and confiscated property, regulate labor, and establish schools
Gen. Oliver O. Howard
Oliver Otis Howard was a career United States Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War
Conservative Republicans
Holds a particular set of opinions, which are typically shaped by a reaction to the risk of something essential being lost or taken
Moderate Republicans
group that viewed Reconstruction as a practical matter of restoring states into the Union and keeping the former Confederates out of government
Radical Republicans
After the Civil War, a group that believed the South should be harshly punished and thought that Lincoln was sometimes too compassionate towards the South
Thaddeus Stevens
A Radical Republican who believed in harsh punishments for the South; leader of the Radical Republicans in Congress
Charles Sumner
A leader of the Radical republicans along with Thaddeus Stevens; he was from Massachusetts and was in the senate; his two main goals were breaking the power of wealthy planters and ensuring that freedmen could vote
Lincoln's Reconstruction Plan
Offered a general amnesty to white Southerners other than high officials of the confederacy
Wade-Davis Bill (1864)
50% took ironclad oath of loyalty, excluded confederacy from future roles on government, slavery abolished
Ironclad Oath
Those who would swear that the had never one arms against the United States
John Wilkes Booth
An American stage actor who, as part of a conspiracy plot, assassinated Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the United States, at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D.C. on April 14, 1865.
Andrew Johnson
17th President of the United States was elected Vice President and succeeded Lincoln when Lincoln was assassinated; was impeached but acquitted by one vote (1808-1875)
Restoration
He offered amnesty to those Southerners who would take an oath of allegiance
Black Codes
Laws denying most legal rights to newly freed slaves; passed by southern states following the Civil War
Civil Rights Act of 1866
A federal law that authorized federal action against segregation in public accommodations, public facilities, and employment.
Joint Committee on Reconstruction
Six senators and nine representatives drafted the 14th Amendment and Reconstruction Acts; the purpose of the committee was to set the pace of Reconstruction; most were radical Republicans
13th Amendment
Abolition of slavery
14th Amendment
Granted citizenship to all born in the US (aimed at African Americans, overturned Dred Scott), provided equal protection of the laws
Reconstruction Acts of 1867
created five military districts, required Congressional approval for new state consitutions, Confederate states give voting rights to all men, and former Confederate states must approve the 14th amendment
15th Amendment
Citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude
Tenure Office Act (1867)
prohibited the president from dismissing any cabinet member or other federal officeholder whose appointment had required the consent of the Senate unless the Senate agreed to the dismissal. Johnson's violation of this act caused the impeachment crisis.
Command of the Army Act (1867)
Prohibited the president from issuing military orders except through the commanding general of the army (General Grant), who could not be relieved or assigned elsewhere without the consent of the Senate.
Johnson's Impeachment
Johnson was impeached on because he fired the secretary of war stanton which was previously deemed illegal; violation of Tenure Act
Scalawags
A derogatory term for Southerners who were working with the North to buy up land from desperate Southerners
Carpetbaggers
A northerner who went to the South immediately after the Civil War; especially one who tried to gain political advantage or other advantages from the disorganized situation in southern states
Hiram Revels & Blanche Bruce
Two black senators from Mississippi who served in Washington D.C. There were also 14 other black congressmen who served between 1868 and 1876.
Civil Rights Act of 1875
A federal law that authorized federal action against segregation in public accommodations, public facilities, and employment.
Sharecropping
A system used on southern farms after the Civil War in which farmers worked land owned by someone else in return for a small portion of the crops
Crop-Lien System
System that allowed farmers to get more credit; they used harvested crops to pay back their loans.
President Ulysses S. Grant & his scandals
18th President of the United States; as Commanding General of the United States Army; first series involved the Credit Mobilier construction company his first term did not consist of scandals
Hamilton Fish
an American statesman and politician who served as the 16th Governor of New York, a United States Senator and United States Secretary of State
Credit Mobilier
a joint-stock company organized in 1863 and reorganized in 1867 to build the Union Pacific Railroad; it was involved in a scandal in 1872 in which high government officials were accused of accepting bribes
"Grantism"
A 19th century term for political corruption during the Gilded Age; included bribery scandals, abuses of the spoils system and political cronyism.
Panic of 1873
Four year economic depression caused by overspeculation on railroads and western lands, and worsened by Grant's poor fiscal response
Greenbacks
Name for Union paper money not backed by gold or silver; value would fluctuate depending on status of the war
Specie Resumption Act (1875)
Provided the greenback dollars whose value constantly fluctuated; redeemed by government and replaced with gold
National Greenback Party
An American political party that was active between 1874 and 1889; believed strongly in reforming our currency, labor rights, and was against monopolism; name refers to money that isn't backed by gold, or "greenbacks"
Alaska
Russians offered Alaska to the US for $7.2 million, despite the criticism from many Americans
Midway Islands
Battle at midway island between USA and Japan; if Japan were to win, the would have controlled of the Pacific
Treaty of Washington
The treaty in which the British expressed regret for their "escape" of the ships into Confederate hands and agreed to submit the question of damage to arbitration
Ku Klux Klan (Knights of White Camellia; Red Shirts)
Largest and most effective organizations of the time; led by former Confederate general Nathan Bedford Forrest; absorbed many of smaller terrorist organizations in the South
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Confederate cavalry leader who later became a Grand leader of the Ku Klux Klan
Enforcement Acts (Ku Klux Klan Acts) (1870; 1871)
Prohibited the states from discriminating against voters on the basis of race and gave the federal government power to supersede the state courts and prosecute the violations of laws
Social Darwinism
19th century of belief that evolutionary ideas theorized by Charles Darwin could be applied to society
Rutherford B. Hayes
19th President, ended reconstruction by removing federal troops, disputed Tilden/Hayes election resulted in the Compromise of 1877
Samuel Tilden
Democratic candidate for the U.S. presidency in the disputed election of 1876, the most controversial American election of the 19th century; a political reformer, he was a Bourbon Democrat who worked closely with the New York City business community
Compromise of 1877
Ended Reconstruction; Republicans promised the removal of military from South, Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river