Quality- Hinf 320
Terms in this set (40)
What phases does quality fall in?
Planning, Executing and Controlling
What happens in the planning phase for quality deliverables?
Prepare quality management plan
- quality management plan
What happens in the executing phase for quality deliverables?
Preform quality assurance
- Change request
- Project document update
What happens in the controlling phase for quality deliverables?
Preform quality control
- Organizational process asset update
- Change Request
- Project document update
What is quality?
"the degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfils requirements" (ISO9000:2000)
What are other terms to define quality?
Conformance to requirement
- project's processes and products meet written specifications
Fitness for use:
a product can be used as it was intended
What are the processes in Quality Management?
Perfrming quality assurance
Performing quality control
What planning quality?
Identfiying which qulity standards are relevant to the project and how to satisfy them; a metric is a standard measurement
What is preforming quality assurance
Periodically evaluating overall project performance to ensure the project will satisfy the relevant quality standards
How can defects be prevented?
- Selecting proper materials
-Training and indoctrinating people in quality
-Planning a process that ensures the appropriate outcome
Who is responsible for quality of projects?
There are also different organizations and references that can help PM and their teams understand quality
ISO ( international standards for organizations)
What is quality assurance?
includes all the activities related to satisfying the relevant quality standards for a project
What is benchmarking?
It generates ideas for quality improvements by comparing specific project practices or product characteristics to those of other projects or products within or outside the performing organization
What is quality Audit
a structured review of specfic quality management activities that help identify lessons learned that could improve performance on current or future projects
What is the differance between quality assurance and quality control?
the PROCESS used to create the deliverables, can be preformed by a manager,client or even a third party reviewer
ie. : checklists and project audits
verify that deliverables are of acceptable quality and that they are complete and correct (content)
ie.: activites include deliverable peer reviews and the testing process
What are the main output of quality control?
- Acceptance Decisioncs
What are the 7 basic tools for quality that help in perfroming quality control?
1. Cause and effect Diagrams
2. Control Charts
3. Run Charts
4 Scatter Diagrams
6. Pareto Charts
7. Flow Charts
What is a cause and effect Diagram?
trace complaints about quality problems back to the responsible production operations
They help you find the root cause of a problem
Also known as fishbone or Ishikawa diagrams
Can also use the 5 whys technique where you repeated ask the question "Why" (five is a good rule of thumb) to peel away the layers of symptoms that can lead to the root cause
What is a control chart?
a graphic display of data that illustrates the results of a process over time
The main use of control charts is to prevent defects, rather than to detect or reject them
Seven Run Rule
If 7 data points in a row are decreasing, increasing or are above or below the mean - the the process needs to be examined for non-random events
What does a control chart
determine whether a process is in or out of control
What is a process in control?
any variations in the results of the processes are created by random events
- processes that are in control do not need to be adjusted
What is a process out of control
variations in the results of the processes are caused by non random events.
- you need to identify the causes of the non random events and adjust the processes to correct of elimante them
What are run charts?
-Displays the history and pattern of variation of a process across time
-Use to perform trend analysis to forecast future outcomes
What is a scatter diagram?
Used to show if there is a relationship between 2 variables
The closer the data points are to the line, the closer the relationship
What is a histogram?
Displays the distribution of variables
Each bar represents an attribute or characteristic of the problem and the height represents its frequency
What is Pareto Charts?
A Pareto chart is a histogram that can help you identify and prioritize problem areas
Pareto analysis is also called the 80-20 rule, meaning that 80 percent of problems are often due to 20 percent of the causes
What is a flowchart?
are graphic displays of the logic and flow of processes that help you analyze how problems occur and how processes can be improved
They show activities, decision points, and the order of how information is processed
what is six siggma?
"a comprehensive and flexible system for achieving, sustaining, and maximizing business success. Six Sigma is uniquely driven by close understanding of customer needs, disciplined use of facts, data, and statistical analysis, and diligent attention to managing, improving, and reinventing business processes.
What is the basic information on Six Sigma?
that taget for prefection is hte achievement of no more then 3.4 defect per milllion oppurtunites
- the principles can apply to a wide variety of processes
- six sigma normally follow a five phase imporvement process called DMAIC
What is DMAIC?
DMAIC is a systematic, closed-loop process for continued improvement that is scientific and fact based
DMAIC stands for:
Define: define the problem/opportunity, process, and customer requirements
Measure: define measures, then collect, compile, and display data
Analyze: scrutinize process details to find improvement opportunities
Improve: generate solutions and ideas for improving the problem
Control: track and verify the stability of the improvements and the predictability of the solution
What is testing?
Many IT professionals think of testing as a stage that comes near the end of IT product development
Testing should be done during almost every phase of the IT product development life cycle
What are the different types of testing?
Unit testing - tests each individual component ( often a program) to ensure it is as defect free as possible
Integration testing- occurs between unit and system testing to test functionally grouped components
System Testing- tests the entire system as one entity
User acceptance testing- an independent test preformed by end users prior to accepting the delivered system
Explain ISO Standards
ISO 9000 is a quality system standard that:
Is a three-part, continuous cycle of planning, controlling, and documenting quality in an organization
Provides minimum requirements needed for an organization to meet its quality certification standards
Helps organizations around the world reduce costs and improve customer satisfaction
What is improving information tehcnology project quality?
Suggestions for improving quality for IT Projects include:
-establish leadership that promotes quality
-Understand the cost of quality
- Focus on organizational influences and workplace factos that affect quality
-Follow maturity models
What are maturity models?
Framework for helping organizations improve their processes
Evolutionary process - each suceeding level (more mature- more organized)
-software quality function deployment model
- capability maturity model intergration
- Project management maturity model
Explain the cost of quality
The const of qulaity is the cost of conformance plus the cost of nonconformance
What does conformance mean?
delivering products that meet requirements and fitness for use
What does non conformance mean?
taking responsibilty for failures or not meeting quality expectations
What are the five cost categories erlated to quality
Prevention cost: cost of planning and executing a project so it is error-free or within an acceptable error range
Appraisal cost: cost of evaluating processes and their outputs to ensure quality
Internal failure cost: cost incurred to correct an identified defect before the customer receives the product
External failure cost:
cost that relates to all errors not detected and corrected before delivery to the customer
Measurement and test equipment costs: capital cost of equipment used to perform prevention and appraisal activities
What are some softwares that assist in project quality management?
Spreadsheet and charting software helps create Pareto diagrams, fishbone diagrams, and so on
Statistical software packages help perform statistical analysis
Specialized software products help manage Six Sigma projects or create quality control charts
Project management software helps create Gantt charts and other tools to help plan and track work related to quality management