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A possible explanation for a observation or phenomenon, developed from available info and used as a basis for testing
Brilliant burst of light that follows the collapse of the iron core and explosion of a massive star
The very thin outer layer of the Earth, above the mantle composed of a rigid later of lighter rocks
Theory of creation of Universe by instant expansion of an extremely small piece of matter of extremely high density and temperature
The part of a large meteoroid that survives its trip through the atmosphere and strikes Earth's surface
The thickness of Earth's layers, located between the outer core and the Earth's crust, composed mostly of compounds rich in iron, silicon, and magnesium
Volcano located in Indonasia that erupted in 1815 and caused the Year without a Summer in New England during 1816
during planetary accretion, when blobs of matter collide to form and object 1 -10 km in size
A substance composed of atoms that are chemically alike and that cannot be broken down into simpler parts
The solid, inner most layer of the Earth, composed of iron and nickel under extremely high pressure and temperature
Located in Siberia, site where a asteroid struck in 1908 with the power of 1000 atmonic bombs
An explanation based on observation, reasoning, and experimentation, especially one that has been tested and confirmed as a general explanation for a phenomena that has been observed
a mass of rock, ice, dust, and gas traveling around the sun usually in a highly eccentric orbit
The layer of the Earth's interior located between the inner core and mantle, composed of iron and nickel in a liquid state
a form of oxygen that has three oxygen atoms in each molecule instead of two 03. protects us from dangerous ultraviolet radiation from the sun
The temperature at which saturation occurs and condensation begins; a measure of the amount of water vapor in the air.
a change directly from the solid to the gaseous state or gaseous to solid without becoming liquid
Dry Adiabatic Lapse Rates
Rising unsaturated air cooling at a rate of about 1 degree Celsius for every 100m it rises.
The layer of Earth's atmosphere that extends from the troposhere to the mesosphere; concentrations of ozone cause it to get warmer as you go up in this layer.
The transfer of energy through space in the form of visible light, ultraviolet rays and other types of electromagnetic waves
The amount of water vapor in the air at a given time and place; expressed as the number of grams of water vapor per kilogram of air.
The maximum amount of water that can be present in the air at a certain temperature. Warmer the temp, higher the capacity
Moist Adiabatic Lapse Rates
Is the rate at which saturated air cools as it rises, .5 degrees Celsius for every 100m of rising
moisture frozen on or in a surface; feathery crystals of ice formed when water vapor in the air condenses at a temperature below freezing
Occurs in September, in the northern hemisphere, and marks the beginning of fall in the Northern Hemisphere
begins on Dec. 21st in northern hemisphere; northern hemisphere is tilted away from the sun, so it's the coldest time of the year
The layer of the Earth's atmosphere that extends from the stratosphere to the thermosphere, characterized by decreasing temperatures.
The transfer of heat energy through collisions of the atoms or molecules of a substance, the direct transfer of heat from one substance to another substance that it is touching
A comparison of the actual amount of water vapor in the air with the maximum amount if water vapor that can be present in air. Specific Humidity/Capacity
Rainbows located to the right and left of the sun. Seen with cirrostratus clouds, indicate rain is coming
The layer of Earth's atmosphere above the mesosphere, characterized by increasing temperatures with altitude.
The transfer of heat energy in a liquid or gas through the motion of the liquid or gas caused by differences in density
The condition in which the air is holding as much water vapor as possible at a given temperature and pressure.
On June 21, it is the longest day in the Northern Hemisphere due to the fact that the sun is directly over the tropic of Cancer
light wispy precipitation that evaporates before it reaches the ground (especially when the lower air is low in humidity)
an instrument that measure air pressure, An instrument that measures changes in air pressure without using a liquid. Changes in the shape of an airtight metal box cause a needle on the barometer dial to move.
pressure gradient force
Drives air from areas of higher barometric pressure to areas of lower barometric pressure, causing winds.
The way Earth's rotation makes winds in the Northern Hemisphere curve to the right and winds in the Southern Hemisphere curve to the left.
the movement of a fluid, caused by differences in temperature, that transfers heat from one part of the fluid to another
a front where a warm air mass is caught between two colder air masses and brings cool temperatures and large amounts of rain and snow
the resistance encountered when one body is moved in contact with another. Slows down the speed of wind when it flows over land
moving weather front along which a warm air mass slides over a cold air mass, producing stratiform clouds and precipitation
Area of high pressure where wind will move away from, associated with dry and nice weather and air that is sinking
Area of low pressure where wind will move towards, associated with cloudy and rainy weather and air that is rising
An instrument that measures changes in air pressure, consisting of a glass tube partially filled with mercury, with its open end resting in a dish of mercury. Air pressure pushing on the mercury in the dish forces the mercury in the tube to be higher.
the ratio of a mineral's weight compared with the weight of an equal volume of water
The process by which sediments are pressed together under their own weight to form sedimentary rocks
The process in which minerals precipitate into pore spaces between sediment grains and bind sediments together to form rock.
the force applied to a unit area of surface, forces water out between grains of sediment in the lithification process, also can cause rocks to metamorphose
Basic building block of silicate minerals, made up of four oxygen atoms and 1 silicon aton
A type of rock that forms from an existing rock that is changed by heat, pressure, or chemical reactions
A type of rock that forms when particles from other rocks or the remains of plants and animals are pressed and cemented together
a naturally occurring, inorganic, solid that has a crystal structure and a definite chemical composition
type of fracture with curved breaks, like what happens with thick glass or the bottom of a bottle, shell shaped
property exhibited by transparent minerals that produce a double image of any object viewed through them, Ex: The mineral Iceland Spar
an organism that grows, feeds and is sheltered on or in a different organism while contributing nothing to the survival of its host
Army Corp of Engineers
The group responsible for major engineering projects completed by the government
Process: A magma chamber hardens under ground and formed into a pluton. The pluton is then put under pressure and pushes back against the pressure. Resulting in sheeting on the surface of the rocks.
Imaginary line. To west, water will flow to Pacific and to east, water will flow to Atlantic
Idea that edges of objects tend to weather first, therefore rounding the object
When water freezes it expands about 10% in volume. Therefore in cold climates, the most weathering and erosion is done by frost weathering. Water seeps into cracks of rocks, freezes, expands, and eventually the rock will break apart.
Chemical Sedimentary rocks
form when minerals are precipitated from a solution or left behind when a solution evaporates
when the sediments are put under pressure, the water is squeezed away. minerals are left behind. Resulting in sedimentary rocks.
Large monument in desert in Egypt for 3,000 years, moved to NYC, after 100 years very weathered by chemicals (acid rain and pollution)
is a 12-mile-wide collapsed volcanic caldera in the Jemez Mountains of northern New Mexico.
a bulbous mass associated with an old-age volcano produced when thick lava is slowly squeezed from the vent, lava domes may act as plugs to deflect subsequent gaseous eruptions
Varying rates of weathering resulting from some rocks in an area being more resistant to weathering than others.
Erosion from wind lifting up and removing loose material, moves finer particles in the air and rolls the larger grains
a region of the Colorado Plateau characterized by a cluster sandstone buttes, including the mitten rocks
Is the dark coating which is found on exposed rock surfaces in arid environments, contains magnesium
A box canyon is a small ravine or canyon with steep walls on three sides, allowing access and egress only through the mouth of the canyon. ...
forms when snow is exposed to the air, crystals get larger. Creates weak layer of snow.
the depositing of river carried sediments on the ocean floor. largest sediments are deposited closest to shore
chemical decomposition in which a compound is split into other compounds by reacting with water
The process by which sediments are separated by size as they move down through the water column
Drainage pattern. Like a tree, with progressively bigger rivers, all ending into one large river at the bottom.
When sediment is dropped by a river. When a river slows down, material can no longer be carried and get deposited on the river bed.
The elevation to which a river has the ability to erode its bed down to, everywhere along its course, Lowest elevation to which the stream can erode downward, for many streams, the water surface level of the body of water into which they flow
Process of selection and separation of sediment grains according to their grain size (or grain shape or specific gravity).
a low plain adjacent to a river that is formed chiefly of river sediment and is subject to flooding
a crescent-shaped lake (often temporary) that is formed when a meander of a river is cut off from the main channel
a mixture in which particles of a material are more or less evenly dispersed throughout a river
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