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Comprehensive LIT TERMS TEST LIT Terms Test #1, LIT Terms Test #2
Terms in this set (80)
opposite of passive voice, essentially any sentense with an active word
an attack on the person rather than the issues at hand-a common fallacy, especially during an election year
repetition of phonetic sound at the beginning of several words in a sentence
reference that recalls another work, another time in history, another famous person, and so forth
wonderful technique of repetition, the last word of the clause begins the next clause, creating a connection of ideas important to the author's purpose in some way.
signifies a relational comparison of or similarity between two objects or ideas.
in rhetoric, this is the deliberate repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of several successive poetic lines, prose sentences, clauses, or paragraphs. Will see this quite often in political speeches when polititions make promises to voters.
the reversal of the natural order of words in a sentense or line of poetry-has been known to occasionally cause confusion in inexperienced readers.
an observation or claim that is in opposition to your claim or an author's claim.
brief statement of an opinion or elementral truth
prayer-like, this is a direct address to someone who is not presentt, to a deity or muse, or some other power. Nearly always pathos.
also called a noun phrase, an appositive modifies the noun next to it.
argument from ignorance
an argument stating that something is true because it has never been proven false
the deliberate ommission of conjunctions from a series of related independent clauses. Effect is to create a tight, consise, and forceful sentence.
also called 'vox populi'. This argument is the "everyone's doing it" fallacy.
begging the question
this argument occurs when the speaker states a claim that includes a word or phrase that needs to be defined before the article starts.
cause and effect
fallacy, known as 'post hoc ergo propter hoc' (Latin for "after this, therefore because of this"). Such an argument falls under the general umbrella of a causality fallacy or false claim-superstitions.
an ABBA syntactical. Derived from the Greek letter X and its form is similar to an X. Also a rather minor syntactical devise
sentence structure, combination of a dependent and an independent clause.
sentence structure, two independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjuction.
combination of a compound and a complex sentense
associations or moods that accompany a word. Words generally are either negative, positive, or neutral.
basic statement or an assertion, most common type of sentence.
form of logical argumentation that uses claims or premises. The assumption by the author is that you will accept the claims as true and deduce the correct conclusion from the accepted premises at the outset. Looks like geometry proofs.
opposite of connotation, quite literally the dictionary meaning of a word
clause that contains a noun and a verb but is set up with a subordinate conjuction.
regional speech pattern. The way people talk in different parts of the world. Form of regionalism in writing and often referred to as "colloquial language."
particular words an author uses in any essay. The choices of this this term are the essential building blocks of composition.
possible answer that seems to be correct, but is either wrong or is not as good as other answers.
three dots that indicate words have been left out of a quotation. Also can be used to create suspense.
like chiasmus, this figure repeats the opening word or phrase at the end of the sentense to emphasize a statement or idea, but it is NOT AN ABBA REVERSAL.
minor device, the ending of a serries of lines, phrases, clauses or sentences with the same word or words. When it appears in a speech or essay, it is emotionally potent
Ethical Morals. One of the fundamental strategies of argumentation identified by Aristotle. Basically an appeal to credibility. Writer is seeking to convince you that he or she has the background, history, skills, and/or expertise to speak on the issue.
Logical Appeals. Appeal to reason. One of the fundamental strategies of argumentation identified by Aristotle.
independent clause followed by all sorts of debris, usually dependent clauses
Emotional Appeal. An appeal to emotion. One of the fundamental strategies of argumentation identified by Aristotle.
study of the origin of words and their historical uses
to use a safer or nicer word for something others find inappropriate or unappealing
failure of logical reason
either/or fallacy, suggestion is made in the argument that the problem or debate only has two solutions
verb ending in "ing" that serves as a noun (think "n" in gerund)
form of logical argumentation that requires the use of examples
the word "to" plus a verb
pattern of speech, vocabulary associated with a particular group of people
making one idea more dramatic by placing it next to its opposite
form of word play in which one word is mistakenly substituted for another that sounds similar
the name of one thing is substituted for another with which it is closely associated
literally means "it does not follow", an argument by misdirection and is logically irrelevent
two words that together create a sense of opposition, often calls attention to a particular point in an argument
seeks to create a mental discontinuity, which then forces the reader to pause and seek clarity. A truth or group of sentences that defy our intuition.
parallel syntax (or parallelism)
pattern of language that creates a rhythm of repetition often combined with some other language of repetition. It can exist in sentences and it is also a significant element in syntactical analysis.
a verbal (expressing action or a state of being) that is used as an adjective and most often ends in -ing or -ed.
sentence with several dependent clauses that precede the independent clause
grouping of words that define or clarify- NO VERB
poisoning the well
a person or character is introduced with language that suggests that he is not at all reliable before the listener/reader knows anything about him
use of consecutive coordinating conjunctions even when they are not needed, effect is to render the reader somewhat breathless
formal term for the verb that conveys the meaning or carries the action of the sentence
adjective that follows a linking verb and modifies the subject of the sentence.
noun or pronoun that uses a linking verb to unite, describe, or rename the noun in the subject of the sentence
word for a claim, is a statement of truth at least to to the person making the argument
play on words, in an argument a pun usually calls humorous attention to a particular point
ANYTHING THAT DISTRACTS: argument that distracts the reader by raising issues irrelevant to the case, like being given too many suspects in a murder mystery.
independent clause that has a subject and a verb
slippery slope (DOMINO THEORY)
fallacy of argumentation argues that one thing inevitably leads to another
occurs when a person engaging in an argument defines his opponent's position when the opponent is not present and defines it a manner that is easy to attack
conjunction that makes an independent clause into a dependent clause
three-part argument construction in which two premises lead to a truth
part is used for the whole
rules of grammar that define the formation
to unite or synthesize a variety of sources to acheive a common end
sentence with three equally distinct and equally long parts (separated by commas rather than colons, despite the name).
two or more elements in a sentense are tied together by the same verb or noun.
a contrast between what is said and what is meant (sarcasm)
a contrast between what happens and what was expected
a contrast between what the character thinks to be true and what the reader knows to be true
question whose answer is assumed, designed to force the reader to respond in a predetermined manner and is a significant tool in the study of rhetoric, propel an argument emotionally, setting you up to agree with the writer
argument when what is unknown is compared to something that is known using the word "like" "as" or "than" in order to better perceive its importance
Recommended textbook explanations
myPerspectives: American Literature, California (Volume 1)
myPerspectives: English Language Arts, California (Grade 9, Volume 1)
SpringBoard English Language Arts: Senior English
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