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Earth 101 Final LOL
Terms in this set (74)
Is the Earth older than the moon?
No, the Earth and the moon are about the same age
True or False-- the composition of the Earth's crust is similar to the rest of the Earth
Which of the following are differentiated bodies: Chondritic meteorites, the Earth, the Moon
The Earth, The Moon
How old is the Earth based on radiometric dating?
4.5 Ga (billion years old)
What is an isotope, i.e. how is it defined?
An atom with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons
The age of the oldest rocks has been dated by...
True or false-- Most of the Solar system's mass is in the planets
False (most of the mass is in the sun)
Except for a few tiny Zircon crystals, the oldest rocks from the Earth's original crust are gone. What happened to them?
Plate tectonics "erased" them
Complete the statement: To the best of our current knowledge, it looks like the Earth's water came from...
The original rocks (chondrites)
The "Moho" is a seismic discontinuity defining the boundary between:
Crust and mantle
The Earth's magnetic field is actively generated in the...
The liquid outer core
True or false-- New ocean crust is constantly generated along the mid-ocean ridges
What is the oceanic crust made of?
Basalt (and the continental crust is made up of Granite)
Iron meteorites (Fe-Ni alloy) represent the material found in a planet's...
Seismic waves are used to determine what about the Earth's interior?
It's layered structure
How do we know the mantle is not made entirely of peridotite?
It cannot produce basalt by melting
What is the most abundant element in the Earth's crust?
What is a mineral?
It must have a fixed chemical composition, a naturally occurring solid, it must have an ordered atomic arrangement
Which is the most abundant mineral in the crust?
Igneous rocks are defined as having crystallized from...
a melt (magma)
Recycling of the Earth's oceanic crust back into the mantle occurs at:
True or false-- In Chicago we live near a plate boundary
What is the primary driving force of plate tectonics?
Heat flow by convection
True or false-- Most earthquakes occur along the plate boundaries
True or false-- Because of the San Andreas fault, San Francisco will eventually separate from North America and move off into the ocean
Which type of seismic wave causes the shaking we experience during an earthquake?
Tsunami waves can be caused by...
both underwater landslides and earthquakes
Hawaii is an example of a...
hot spot (plume)
The Aleutian Islands of Alaska are a volcanic chain formed by:
The Explosive nature of a volcano is principally controlled by
The silica content (and viscosity) of magma
Fractional crystallization descrives
The evolution of magma composition as different crystals precipitate out
True or False: Volcanic eruptions can perturb climate on a global scale
Which greenhouse gas are we most concerned with because it has been increasing and is linked with global temperature rise over the past several hundred years
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
In class today, we calculate dhow much energy is required to raise ocean surface temperature by 1.5 degrees Celsius. Compared with the total amount of energy used annually, it was...
around 6 times more energy
True or False: The last time atmospheric CO2 was above 400 ppm was around 25 million years ago.
True or False: The current cold weather winters indicated that the climate is not warming
What factor impacts climate?
atmospheric chemistry, surface reflectance (albedo), orbital mechanics
What is Hubbert's peak?
Maximum in production rates of a fuel-theoretically a point of glass-half-full
Why has the U.S. crude oil production increased dramatically over the past 8 years?
Because of massive shore finds in the Gulf of Mexico and oil-shale "mining"
True or False: The U.S. is currently the world's largest producer of petroleum products
The Black Sea is considered an analog modern environment where oil could form because:
Very low oxygen levels in deep water helps to preserve organic matter
Which fuel is the most CO2 producing per unit energy:
True or False: The world's coal supply is nearly gone
Carbon sequestration refers to what?
Removing CO2 from the air or from power plants and locking it away in some stable form, such as minerals
True or False: China is the largest produce of coal
True or False: The US imports a lot more fuel than we produce
True or False: Plastic bags are made from petroleum procuts
True or False: The current fleet of nuclear reactors in the United States use nuclear fusion as their source of heat
What approximately percentage of electricity in the United States is provided by nuclear energy?
What is the most sensible approach to managing nuclear waste?
Disposal on land in deep geologic repositories
True or False: The U.S. currently buries all its nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain in Nevada
A closed nuclear fuel cycle refers to what?
An approach to recycle used nuclear fuel in reactors to generate additional electricity and minimize nuclear waste.
True or False: The problem with nuclear power plants is that they require weapons-grade enrichment levels of Uranium235
Which isotope of uranium is considered fissile?
True or False: The U.S. currently reprocesses spent nuclear fuel
On Tuesday, Steve demonstrated the radioactivity of uranium with real uranium ore
The photovoltaic effect is a direct transformation of energy between which two forms of energy:
Radiant (light) and electrical energy
In class we calculated how much it would cost to install enough solar panels on Professor Jacobsen's house to meet the household demand of 40 kWh/day. What was the estimate?
True or False: The Three Georges Dam in China produces 10X more electricity than the Hoover Dam
Which renewable energy source still makes up the largest share of US electricity generation:
Which country produces more wind power than any other (total capacity, not %), by possibly twice as much as any other country?
Which renewable energy sector is growing the fastest in the US?
True or False: Las Vegas gets electricity from the Hoover Dam (Colorado River).
True or False: Power is the same thing as Energy.
True or False: Lanthanum, which is the main "metal" in nickel-metal-hydride batteries (e.g. Prius), is so rare that Toyota will need to figure out another battery system for future production
Which country, by far, produces most of the world's rare earth elements?
Why is gold so valuable?
It's very rare, it's pretty and doesn't oxidize, it's malleable and a great conductor of electricity
True or False: The volume of fresh groundwater is much greater than the volume of the world's lakes and rivers combined.
Neodymium is most widely used to make very strong (and thus miniature)
The oldest complete human skeleton found in the Americas is probably around:
10,000 years old
True or False: All rocks with high porosity must have high permeability.
The fundamental process that forms cave systems is the _______________ of carbonate rock.
True or False: Fusion energy, if it can be developed, would ultimately be able to harness more energy than is put in.
True or False: Smart phones contain a wide range of rare earth elements (REEs)
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