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Epidemiology course objectives
Terms in this set (55)
The study of how disease is distributed in populations and of the factors that influence or determine the distribution.
A disease that has uncertain etiology, is multifactorial in its origins, has long latency period, is noncontagious, and is usually incurable.
Infectious disease (communicable)
A disease that can spread through bodily or surface contact, airborne particles, water sources, or any other matrix that can pass successfully from one host to another.
Describes the data on the disease and generates hypotheses.
Type of epidemiology when researchers attempt to demonstrate causality between independent and dependent variables. Tests hypotheses. Examine the risk factors.
Miasma vs. germ theory
Miasma theory concludes that disease is spread by diseased air, whereas germ theory portends that diseases are spread by microorganisms.
Theory of multiple causality
Refers to notion that a series of adverse exposures over a period of time, can result in a serious, or even deadly, disease in the future.
The number of conditions (new and existing) in a population over a given period of time.
The number of new conditions seen in a population over a given period of time.
An unknown and unpredictable element in a research project that seems to be absent of a definable causal element.
Systematic error (bias)
Issues in the way that the study subject were sampled and/or data was gathered.
Aims to reduce the incidence of disease by personal and communal efforts, such as decreasing environmental risks, enhancing nutritional status, immunizing against communicable diseases. (Public Health)
Aims to reduce the prevalence of disease by shortening its duration. If the disease has no cure, it may increase survival and quality of life; in this case it will also increase the prevalence of disease (preventive medicine)
Aimed at softening the impact of disease and disability by eliminating or reducing impairment, disability, and handicap; minimizing suffering; and maximizing potential years or useful life (rehabilitation).
The occurrence in a community or region of cases of an illness, specific health related behavior, or other health-related events clearly in excess of normal expectancy.
The constant present of a disease or infectious agent within a geographic area or population group (usual amount)
An epidemic occurring worldwide, or over a very wide area, crossing international boundaries, and usually affecting a large number of people.
Strength of association, consistency, specificity, temporality, biological gradient, coherence, plausibility, analogy, experiment. (Bradford Hill)
Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY)
A measure of population health. A DALY lost is a measure of the burden of disease on a defined population. 1 DALY equals 1 lost year of healthy life. It is an adjustment of life expectancy
Primary is directed at high risk people before they develop disease. Secondary is directed at people who don't have symptoms but have biological changes. Tertiary is directed at people with symptomatic disease.
The proportion of individuals with the condition at a specified point in time.
The proportion of individuals with the condition at any time during a specified time period.
The proportion of individuals who have had the condition for at least part of their lives at any time during their life course.
A type of ratio in which the numerator is included in the denominator. Must be from 0 to 1. Dimensionless quantity. Part of the whole amount or number
The probability that it will occur/the probability that it won't occur.
Information that is noncontinuous, discrete/categorical; there is no ranked order to this data, and it is typically reserved for info coded as names.
Information that is noncontinuous, discrete/categorical; defined as a set of info ranked into some order.
Continuous data that can be measured on a scale.
A set of information that can hold any value; interval and ratio data are examples
Information that contains only a certain number of values usually seen as whole numbers. Nominal and ordinal
Continuous data compared as multiples of one another where an individual can be three times as heavy as another. There is a definite zero associated.
The extent to which scores for individuals who have not changed are the same for repeated measurements.
The degree to which a measurement tool measures what it purports to measure.
Occurs when we unfairly select people into our study. Arises from the procedures used to select individuals into the study.
Occurs when we make errors in how we measure people who are already in our study and these errors are unfair. Results in missclassification
The degree to which a study is free from bias or systematic error. We control confounding, reduce and/or eliminate bias to improve it.
The degree to which results of a study may apply, be generalized, or be transported to populations or groups that did not participate in the study.
Methods to control for confounding
Stratification, randomization, statistical adjustment, matching, restriction.
A mask that prevents us from seeing the association between exposure and disease. Must be a risk factor for the disease, must be associated with the exposure, and must not be on the causal pathway.
Variation in the association between exposure and disease across the levels of another factor. 'Pre-exposure'.
Epidemiology is a subdiscipline of public health
Effort by society to protect, promote, and restore people's health. Combination of sciences, skills, and beliefs that is directed to the maintenance and improvement of health of all the people through collective or social actions.
Natural history of disease from onset to resolution
Stage of onset, pre symptomatic stage, clinical disease.
Chronic disease continuum
"Upstream" social and economic determinants-individual behaviors-chronic conditions-chronic disease-disability and death
The change from infectious diseases being the leading cause of death to chronic disease today. The focus has shifted to preventing disease, disability, and death in a population.
Primary prevention; measures that inhibit the emergence and establishment of processes and factors known to increase the risk of disease.
Risk factor (determinant)
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, an environmental exposure, or an inherited characteristic that on the basis of epidemiologic evidence is known to be associated with health-related conditions considered important to prevent.
Objectives of epidemiology- IDSEO
1) Identify the etiology of a disease 2) Determine the extent of disease in the community 3) Study the natural history and prognosis of the disease 4) Evaluate both existing and new preventative and therapeutic measures and modes
of healthcare delivery 5) Offering recommendations for public policy
Likely patient outcome with disease.
Descriptive vs analytic
Descriptive describes the distribution of disease while analytic understands the determinants of disease. Analytic tests the hypothesis that descriptive made. Analytic more expensive and time consuming. Causation only in analytical.
Why were epidemics not a problem in early history?
Societies were too small and there were no domesticated animals. Infectious agents either killed the entire group or they moved away from it.
Early failures in medical system
We looked at each case instead of at population level. Lack of grouping
Disease was caused by some type of air pollution.
The concept that a given health state may have more than one cause. A combination of causes or alternative combinations of causes is often required to produce the health outcome.
Chronic disease characteristics
1) Uncertain Etiology 2) Multifactorial Origins 3) Long Latency Periods 4) Noncontagious 5) Incurable
Chronic disease defined
A disease that has a prolonged temporal course, that does not resolve spontaneously, and for which a complete cure is rarely achieved.
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