Bio 311C Final


Terms in this set (...)

What are the levels and examples of Biological Hierarchy
Molecules(water, sugar)
Macromolecules (lipids, Carbs, Proteins)
Parts of a cell(Cell Membrane, Cell Wall)
Cell(Unicellular organism, Parts of multicellular)
Tissue (muscle, bone, nerve)
Organs (heart, lungs, liver)
Organ System (respiratory, circulatory)
Organism (Plants, Animals, bacteria )
Population (Many individuals of same species)
Community (Many different populations)
Ecosystem (Many different communities)
Biome (Desert, Forest, Tundra)
Biosphere (layer where all life is hosted)
Covalent Bond
when two atoms share a pair of electrons
(glycosidic bonds, ester bonds, etc)
Non-polar covalent bond
when two atoms with the same or similar electronegativity share electrons equally
What are Non-polar covalent bond examples
Methane, O2, H2
Polar covalent bond
When two atoms share electrons unequally
What are polar covalent bond examples
Water, NH3
Ionic bonds
When the electronegativity of one atom is greater than the neighboring atom

(This bond is weaker than covaleant bonds)
What are Ionic bond examples
Na+, Cl-
Hydrogen Bond
When the hydrogen covalently attached to one electronegative atom is attracted to another electronegative atom.

(Stronger than Van der Waals and Hydrophobic interactions)
What are Hydrogen Bond Examples
N, O, F
Van Der Waals Interactions
very weak interaction between molecules due to temporary charges attracting atoms that are very close together
What are Van Der Waals Examples
Lipids in biological membranes, celluose in plant cell walls
Hydrophillic Interactions
Water loving charged molecules that are soluble in water
What are some examples of Hydrophillic Interactions
Outside phospholipids membrane bilayer
Water fearing molecules that are normally non-polar and lipid soluble
What are some examples of Hydrophobic
Inside phospholipids membrane bilayer
What are the features of various functional groups and their importance?
Same atoms but different arrangement.
Compounds with the same formula but different structures.
Functional Group
Chemical Groups attached to Carbon skeleton, affecting the properties of the molecule.

(Like different rings in the Lantern Core. Different rings does different things)
Hydroxyl group (-OH)
Gives polarity to molecules
-Makes it easy for molecules to dissolve in water
-called alcohols
Examples of Hydroxyl Group
Sugars and amino acids
Carbonyl Group (-C=O)
Slightly polar
Alehyde if at the end of a molecule( hyde = behind)
Ketone if in the middle of a molecule (Keys go into the middle of doors)
Examples of Carbonyl Groups
simple sugars, some proteins, and nucleotides
Carboxyl group (-COOH)
An acidic group that can ionize COO- and H+ , increasing the concentration on H+ ions

(it Ionizes certain acids)
Examples of Carboxyl group
All amino acids, Fatty Acids, Citric Acid
Amino Group (-NH2)
Can act as a base accepting protons(Hydrogen ions)
Examples of Amino Groups
Amino Acids
Nitrogenous bases

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