Upgrade to remove ads
Terms in this set (36)
the process of breaking down food into molecules the body can use
breaking down food into molecules the body can absorb
Where does mechanical digestion take place?
in the mouth, near the teeth
Where does chemical digestion take place?
in the mouth
What is saliva and what secretes it?
Salivary glands secret saliva- a mixture of water, mucous, and salivary amylase
How is a bolus formed?
water moistens the food and mucous lubricates and helps hold it together
What does salivary amylase digest?
Salivary amylase digest carbohydrates (starch into maltose)
a flap of tissue that covers the trachea; prevents you from choking
alternating contractions of the muscles of the esophageal wall forces the bolus towards the stomach
mechanical digestion of the stomach
the stomach has three layers of muscles that twist the stomach to church up it contents
pores in the stomach walls; openings to gastric gland
gastric gland stores and secretes mucous, enzymes, and HCL (makes pepsin)
The mixture of mucous, enzymes, and HCL is called what?
What does pepsin split complex proteins into?
shorter peptide chains
What is pepsin stored and secreted as?
Pepsin is stored and secreted as pepsinogen, an inactive form. It is stored as this so pepsin won't digest the body because the body is made of proteins. At the low pH of the stomach, pepsin is formed.
What does HCl do?
HCL helps change pepsinogen to pepsin, dissolves minerals and kills bacteria.
coats the lining of the stomach; protects it from HCL and pepsin
sores in the stomach walls
circular muscle between the stomach and esophagus; prevents food from going backwards
After being in the stomach for a while the gastric fluid and food particles together turn into what?
circular muscle at the base of the stomach; controls the release of chyme into the small intestine
-the largest organ in the abdominal cavity
-produces and secretes bile
breaks fat globules into smaller droplets (mechanical digestion)
Where is bile stored?
Why does pancreatic fluid contain enzymes?
to complete the breakdown of nutrients in the small intestine
Pancreatic fluid contains:
1. sodium bicarbonate- neutralizes the acid in the chyme (raises the pH)
2. pancreatic amylase- splits starch into disaccharides
3. pancreatic lipase- breaks fat into fatty acids and glycerol
What breaks down proteins into peptides?
trypsin, chymotrypsin, and carboxypeptidase
Once chyme enters the small intestine, the small intestine....
produces mucous to protect the walls from being digested by enzymes
enzymes produced by small intestines are:
1. peptidase- breaks down peptides into amino acids
2. maltase-splits maltose into monosaccharides
3. lactase- splits lactose into monosaccharides
4. sucrase- splits sucrose into monosaccharides
end products of digestion are:
amino acids, monosaccharides, fatty acids and glycerol
the process by which the end products of digestion are transferred into circulatory system
The walls of the small intestine have finger like projections called villi.
The cells which make up the villi have microprojections called
What does villi and microvilli do?
increase the surface are over which digestion and absorption can take place
What is the purpose of the large intestine?
to reabsorb water
the solidified material in the large intestine
Recommended textbook explanations
Anatomy & Physiology Student Workbook
Kent Pryor, Richard Allan, Tracey Greenwood
Anatomy and Physiology
The Human Body in Health & Disease
Gary A. Thibodeau, Kevin T. Patton
Human Anatomy And Physiology
Elaine N. Marieb, Katja Hoehn
This set is often in folders with...
Origin of Life
Chapter 1- Tissues and Organs
You might also like...
Grade 11 Biology- Digestive System
Grade 11 Biology- Digestive System
Other sets by this creator
Heart of Darkness
Supply, Demand, and Equilibrium
Medicine and The Immune Response
Demand, Supply, Price, and Equllibrium