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Biology 111 Chapter 14 Definitions
Terms in this set (14)
The enzyme that synthesizes DNA during replication. It uses dNTPs as precursors and can only attach new subunits to the free 3' OH of a growing DNA chain.
a key enzyme in DNA replication, involved in unwinding the double helix
a key enzyme in DNA replication, involved in releasing the tension produced by unwinding the double helix; topoisomerase acts ahead of the replication fork by cutting one strand, passing the other strand through and then resealing the first strand
single-strand DNA binding protein
proteins involved in DNA replication that bind to single-stranded DNA after helicase has separated the two strands, to keep the strands from binding to each other again.
the enzyme that synthesizes short RNA primers to start DNA replication
origin of replication
the sequence on a chromosome where replication begins
the enzyme that acts in replication of the lagging strand, by sealing together the phosphate-sugar backbone of the Okazaki fragments to make a single continuous DNA molecules
the strand that can be continuously replicated by DNA polymerase—as the replication fork advances, new single-stranded DNA is exposed on the leading strand in the 3'to 5' direction so that
the strand that must be replicated discontinuously during DNA replication, with repeated starts by primase + DNA polymerase resulting in Okazaki fragments that must be ligated together
the short fragments of newly synthesized DNA copies from the lagging template strand and that are subsequently ligated together
the complex of replication proteins that replicate both the leading and lagging strands of DNA
the ends of linear chromosomes, composed of many copies of repeating sequences
the enzyme that Is necessary for replicating the telomeres (ends of chromosomes); telomerase includes an internal RNA template, which it uses to make many copies of a short DNA sequence
A genetic disease that results from a defect in the nucleotide excision repair system; individuals with the disease are very sensitive to UV light and are at a high risk of skin cancer.
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