CLEP: Western Civilization II - Chapter 1
Absolutism, Constitutionalism, the Dutch Republic, and Russia
Terms in this set (56)
Protestant reformer of 1500's
Thirty Years' War
(1618-1648) A series of European wars that were partially a Catholic-Protestant religious conflict. It was primarily a battle between France and their rivals the Hapsburgs, rulers of the Holy Roman Empire.
Treaty of Westphalia
Ended Thirty Years War in 1648; granted right to individual rulers within the Holy Roman Empire to choose their own religion - either Protestant or Catholic.
the Treaty of Westphalia
A major step on the road towards separation of church & state...was?
Emerged as the strongest German state after Thirty Years' War.
(1640-1688) Also known as the Great Elector. He ruled Prussia and established absolutism there.
(1688-1713) Fredrick William's son; helped establish powerful Prussia.
Fredrick William I
(1713-1740) Fredrick I's son; Prussian king; strove to maintain highly efficent beaucracy of civil workers; by end of riegn in 1740, doubled army's size, made it 1 of the best armies in Europe
Prussian nobles, were exempt from taxes
Organized bureaucracy in Prussia. Staffed by nobles and by professionals who came from common stock.
Also known as Austria-Hungary, or the Hapsburg Empire, as it was ruled by the Hapsburg monarchy from 1867 to 1918. Austria-Hungary extended over most of central Europe. It was composed the modern day countries of Austria, Hungary, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic, as well as parts of present-day Poland, Romania, Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
Austrian royal dynasty, a leading ruling house in Europe from the 13th to 19th century.
a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition or government etc.)
(1588-1679), wrote "Leviathan" in 1651 and believed people were naturally cruel, greedy, and selfish; he also believed only a powerful governemnt could keep an orderly society
Thomas Hobbes's Leviathan
"During the time men live without a common power to keep them all in awe, they are in that condition which is called war; and such a war, as is of every man, against every man." <--- These are famous words from?
(1638-1715) King of France from 1643 to 1715; his long reign was marked by the expansion of French influence in Europe and by the magnificence of his court and the Palace of Versailles; This French king ruled for the longest time ever in Europe. He issued several economic policies and costly wars. He was the prime example of absolutism in France; "Sun King"; One of the most powerful monarchs of Europe, ruling 72 years. He was famous for his quote,"I am the state." Moved capital to Versailles which became a symbol of power.
(1627-1704) Tutor of Louis XIV who taught about the divine right of the monarchy, which helped secure Louis' ideal of absolute monarchy, wrote Politics Drawn from Holy Scriptures
(1585-1642) Adviser to Louis XIII; King Louis XIII was a weak ruler and Richelieu filled the void, more or less running the empire via his advice to the king. A clever politician and strategist, Richelieu expanded royal power, punished dissent harshly, and built France into a great European power.
(1601-1643 French king who succeeded Henry IV when he was nine years old; his reign was dominated by the influence by his mother and regent Marie de Medici, Cardinal Richelieu, and wealthy nobles.
(1632-1704), English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property. Wrote: Two Treaties of Government, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, Some Thoughts Concerning Education, etc.
The French national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. Summoned in 1789 to remedy the financial crisis and correct abuses of the ancien regime, which led to the French Revolution.
Edict of Nantes (1598)
document that granted religious freedom to the Huguenots; was revoked in 1685 by King Louis XIV
(1603-1625) The first Stuart to be king of England and Ireland from 1603 to 1625 and king of Scotland from 1567 to 1625; he was the son of Mary Queen of Scots and he succeeded Elizabeth I; he alienated the British Parliament by claiming the divine right of kings.
Son of James I; King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1625-1649). His power struggles with Parliament (he tried to raise money without the approval of Parliament) resulted in the English Civil War (1642-1648) in which he was defeated. He was tried for treason and beheaded in 1649.
Petition of Right (1628)
Document prepared by Parliament and signed by King Charles I of England in 1628; challenged the idea of the divine right of kings and declared that even the monarch was subject to the laws of the land; no imprisonment without due cause; no taxes levied without Parliament's consent; soldiers not housed in private homes; no martial law during peace time.
English Civil War
(1642-1648) Charles I tried to advocate the divine right of kings and bring more absolutist policies to England. He was also seen as bringing too much Catholic influence to the Church of England. War broke out between Parliament's supporters (Roundheads) and the kings's supporters (Cavaliers). Later Charles I was tried and executed in 1649 as a "tyrant, traitor, murderer, and public enemy". Oliver Cromwell, leader of military, ruled England as "Lord Protector" until 1658.
Supporters of Parliament during the English Civil War
Supporters of King Charles during the English Civil War
New Model Army
The disciplined fighting force of Protestants/Roundheads led by Oliver Cromwell in the English Civil War.
English general and statesman who led the parliamentary army in the English Civil War (1599-1658); called for the execution of Charles I. Declared Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland in 1653; ruled as a virtual dictator.
Religion of Oliver Cromwell?
Members of a Protestant church governed by Presbyters, elders, and founded on the teachings of John Knox.
The Cromwell-controlled Parliament that proclaimed England a republic and abolished the House of Lords and the monarchy.
Radical religious revolutionaries/Republicans - sought social and political reforms, & a more egalitarian (equal) society; Englishmen who wanted everyone to be able to vote.
(1623-1683) Wrote Discourses Concerning Government which has been called the "textbook for the American Revolution"
Bare Bones Parliament
members in a purge of Parliament who believe that the Rump Parliament was not helping society be godly.
(began 1660) In England, followed the Republican period associated with Oliver Cromwell's rule; the Monarchy was restored in England.
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1660-1685) who reigned during the Restoration, a period of expanding trade and colonization as well as strong opposition to Catholicism; his brother: James II
This was the Catholic king of England after Charles II that granted everyone religious freedom and even appointed Roman Catholics to positions in the army and government, King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1685-1688). The last Stuart king to rule both England and Scotland, he was overthrown by his son-in-law William III of Orange.
A reference to the political events of 1688-1689, when James II abdicated his throne and was replaced by his daughter Mary and her husband, Prince William of Orange; In this bloodless revolution, the English Parliament and William and Mary agreed to overthrow James II for the sake of Protestantism. This led to a constitutional monarchy and the drafting of the English Bill of Rights.
Members of English Parliament who didn't like Charles II, but also didn't want his Catholic brother, James II, to take the throne.
Supporters of Charles II; (also - this term became synonymous with Britain's political conservatives later on, like the "Loyalists")
Wrote Lex Rex (Law is King) in 1644; asserted that tyrannical government is always immoral; his book almost caused him to be tried for treason.
William III of Orange
Is asked to succeed James II because of his wife Mary being James's Protestant oldest daughter, and also English wanted to preserve Anglican Church and Parliament. So he ruled instead of Jame's son (crowned 1689)
English Bill of Rights
King William and Queen Mary accepted this document in 1689. It guaranteed certain rights to English citizens and declared that elections for Parliament would happen frequently. By accepting this document, they supported a limited monarchy, a system in which they shared their power with Parliament and the people.
United Provinces of the Netherlands
(Dutch Republic) Formed in 1581; Province who practiced religious toleration, and was a republic who had an elected governor whose power depended on the support of merchants and landholders; Led by William of Orange I against the Spanish Inquisition, eventually declaring political and religious independence from Spain with help from Elizabeth I of Great Britain.
Dutch East India Company
Government-chartered joint-stock, founded by the Dutch, a company that controlled the spice trade in the East Indies.
(1583-1645) Dutch journalist who called for an international code based on natural law. Believed that one body of rules could reduce the dealing of governments to a system of reason and order. Advocated free-trade among nations.
Dutch Golden Age
~ with artists like Rembrandt (1606-1669)
Tsar Peter the Great
(Also called Peter I) Leader who, in the late 17th and early 18th century, turned to the western model to "modernize" Russia; wanted Russia to catch up with the west. He made the men in upper classes shave their beards. Made Russia's army strong. Built St. Petersburg as new Russian capital, which was his "window to Europe".
(1700-1721) Russia defeats Sweden and begins moving against Poland. Russia gets St. Petersburg area from Sweden who was a major power at the time and made it the capital in 1703 because it was a western city.
Joseph II, Fredrick I (the Great), Catherine the Great, & William III of Orange.
Treaty of Ryswick
(1697) Concluded the War of the League of Augsburg (France against Great Britain, Netherlands, & Spain)
Which people group lived in a republic in the 17th century?
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