Latin Midterm

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Nouns have:
case- nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, etc.
number- singular, plural
gender- masculine, feminine, neuter
All first declension nouns are feminine with what few exceptions?
Careers such as agricola and poeta are masculine
Nominative
the subject or predicate nominative of a sentence
Genitive
implies possession of a noun
Dative
indirect object
Accusative
direct object
ablative
object of a preposition
vocative
a noun of direct address
The vocative case is the same as the nominative case for all declensions except ___
the 2nd declension
The different vocative case endings for that one declension.
-us nominative = -e vocative
-ius nominative = -i vocative
Adjectives agree with nouns in...
case- nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, etc.
number-singular, plural
gender- masculine, feminine, neuter
Adjectives come in three different forms
positive, comparative, and superlative
Positive adjectives
pulcher - beautiful
fortis - brave
laetus - happy
Comparative Adjectives
pulchrior- more beautiful
fortior- braver
laetior- happier
Superlative Adjectives
pulcherrimus - most beautiful
fortissimus- bravest
laetissimus- happiest
Adverbs ending in -e are connected with:
1st and 2nd declension adjectives
Adverbs ending in -iter are connected with:
3rd declension adjectives
Positive adverbs end in
-e -1st/2nd declension
-iter 3rd declension
Comparative adverbs end in
-ius
Superlative adverbs end in
-issime
quam + positive
"how _____"
quam + comparative
"____er than"
quam + superlative
"as ____ as possible"
bene, ____, optime
melius
multum, plus, ____
plurimum
present tense
I verb, you verb,
imperfect tense
I was verbing, you were verbing
perfect
I verbed, you verbed
future
I will verb, you will verb
pluperfect
I have verbed, you have verbed
the endings of present tense
o mus
s tis
t nt
the endings of perfect tense
vis vimus
visti vistis
vit verunt
the endings of pluperfect tense
eram eramus
eras eratis
erat erant
the endings of imperfect tense
bam bamus
bas batis
bat bant
the endings of future tense
bo bimus
bis bitis
bit bunt
What are imperatives?
command verbs
postive command
do this
negative command
don't do this
What should be checked to tell whether or not an imperative is singular or plural?
the vocative
Forming a positive command (singular)
take -re off the 2nd p.p
ex. specta, veni
Forming a positive command (plural)
take -re off the 2nd p.p
add -te
ex. spectate, venite
Forming a negative command (singular)
noli + infinitive
ex. noli defendare, noli vexare
Forming a negative command (plural)
nolite + infinitive
ex.nolite vexare, nolite audire
Like adj. _____ change their endings to agree with nouns.
participles
Participles have:
tense
case
#
voice
gender
What are verbal adjectives?
they are participles
Participles must agree in:
-case -# -gender
Present Active Participles
verbing
Perfect Active Participles
having verbed
Perfect Active Participles come from
deponents
Present active participles are declined in what declension?
3rd declension
Perfect Passive participles
having been verbed
Present active participles come from...
the 2nd p.p
perfect passive participles are from:
the 4th p.p
perfect passive participles are declined in..
the 1st or 2nd declension
Forming present active participle
-take -re off 2nd p.p
-add appropriate ending (-ns, or -nt)
-add 3rd declension ending
Where does the ending -ns appear in present active participles
only in nominative singular
deponents looks ___, but are actually ____
passive, active
You cannot change a verb to a ___
deponent
Subjunctives are often used with ____ (hint: when)
cum
Subjunctives lack what tense
future tense
Subjunctives only have how many tenses
only four
So far, ______ and _______ are the subjunctives only tenses given
imperfect and pluperfect
the uses of subjunctives (give 3)
-cum clauses
-indirect questions
-purpose clause
Identifying a subjunctive in the pluperfect tense
3rd p.p +sse + personal endings
ex.audivisset, fuisset
Identifying a subjunctive in the imperfect tense
2nd p.p + personal ending
esset + audiret = audiresset
Use of Subjunctive: indirect Q's
question word + subjunctive
Use of Subjunctive: cum clause
cum + subjunctive
Use of Subjunctive: purpose clause
ut + subjunctive
"rogavit quis esset" this is an example of an _____ __
indirect Q
"cum hanc audivisset" this is an example of a ___ ___
cum clause
"ambulavi donum ut, fratrem necarum" this is an example of a ____ _____
purpose clause
1st p.p
present active indicative
(I verb)
1st person singular
2nd p.p
(to verb)
present active infinitive
3rd p.p
(I verbed)
perfect active indicative
4th p.p
(having been verbed)
perfect passive participle