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APUSH ch 5
Terms in this set (27)
Interstate Commerce Act
1887 law passed to regulate railroad and other interstate businesses. This became the first business subject to federal regulation. This act prohibited rebates and pools, required railroads to publish rates, forbade discrimination against shippers, and outlawed charging more for short haul than for a long one over the same line
Carlisle Indian School
Pennsylvania school founded in 1879 by Richard Henry Pratt and overseen by government; indian children were separated from their tribe and were taught Engilsh and white values/customs. Motto of Pratt: "Kill the Indian and save the man."
Richard Henry Pratt
captain in the US army who worked with the education of American Indians in the late 1800s. He viewed them as "human beings," but his aim was to reform them; making him in every other way except skin color, a Anglo-Saxon Protestant. He thought the Indian must die to become a civilized man. His education was based on imitating the white man.
the Dawes Severalty Act
1887 -law intended to "civilize" Indians by distributing tribal lands to individuals -- Designed to turn Indians into landowners and farmers. -- Emphasized severalty (treatment of Indians as individuals rather than as members of tribes) Intention was to eliminate reservations.
Helen Hunt Jackson
A writer. Author of the 1881 book A Century of Dishonor(1881). The book exposed the U.S. governments many broken promises to the Native Americans. For example the government wanted Native Americans to assimilate, i.e. give up their beliefs and ways of life, that way to become part of the white culture. Her novels helps people sympathize with the native Americans.
Wovoka, ghost dance
The Sioux Indians looked towards a prophet, Wovoka, who claimed the Whites and the buffalo would leave if Indians danced. Its emphasis was on the coming of a messiah, but its most conspicuous feature was a mass, emotional "ghost dance" which inspired ecstatic and mystical visions among participants. This movement ended at the wounded knee massacre she natives thought to have supernatural protection were killed by US soldiers who thought the Natives would rebel.
Wounded Knee Massacre
1890 Indian police officers tried to arrest Sitting Bull but when he resisted they shot and killed him, his followers were taken to Wounded Knee and while being disarmed someone fired a shot and the soldiers opened fire and killed over 200 Sioux. Ended indian War on the great plains.
Sioux chief who led the attack on Custer at the Battle of the Little Bighorn during the sioux war.
Point in Utah where the Transcontinental Railroad was completed. The crews celebrated with placing real golden spikes into the last track laid.
Passed in 1862, it gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land for five years. Encouraged westward migration and encouraged the use of the new transcontinental railroad.
A Scottish-born American industrialist and philanthropist who founded the Carnegie Steel Company in 1892. By 1901, his company dominated the American steel industry because they monopolized by owning all means of production. Was a "robber Barron"/ captain of industry. Verticle integration.
Bought out competitors, paid workers low wages, and dominated their respective industry by controlling all means of production. Anyone who monopolized. Ex. Rockefeller, Vanderbilt, Carnegie, JP Morgan.
Vertical and horizontal integration
Practice where a single entity controls the entire process of a product, from the raw materials to distribution. Marked the beginnings of trusts (destruction of competition);
Vertical integration- controlling every aspect of production (control quality, eliminate middlemen - Rockefeller)
Horizontal integration- consolidating with competitors to monopolize a market (highly detrimental)
Standard Oil Trust
John D Rockefeller's corporation that controled over 90% of the nation's oil by 1881. It used horizontal integration to accumulate wealth. Resulted in other companies emulating this strategy. The company oftentimes bribed politicians for favors.
Sherman Anti-trust act
(1890) First federal action against monopolies, stated that any company restraining free trade was illegal and it limited trusts and extremely large businesses. It was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions
United States vs. E.C. Knight Company
1895 - said that while the federal government had the right to regulate some parts of the economy, under the tenth amendment could regulate manufacturing and that the Sherman Anti-Trust Act could not be applied to the American Sugar Refining Company even though they controlled 90% of the sugar processing in the US
National Labor Union
founded by William Sylvis and Richard Trevellick(1866); supported 8-hour workday, convict labor, federal department of labor, banking reform, immigration restrictions to increase wages, women; excluded blacks
Knights of Labor
One of the most important American labor organizations of the 19th century. Founded by seven Philadelphia tailors in 1869 and led by Uriah S. Stephens, its ideology may be described as producerist, demanding an end to child and convict labor, equal pay for women, a progressive income tax, and the cooperative employer-employee ownership of mines and factories. Leaderships under Terrence Powderly, successful with Southwest Railroad System, failed after Haymarket Riot
100,000 workers rioted in Chicago. After the police fired into the crowd, the workers, mostly Knights of Labor, met and rallied in Haymarket Square to protest police brutality. A bomb exploded, killing or injuring many of the police. The Chicago workers and the man who set the bomb were immigrants, so the incident promoted anti-immigrant feelings.
American Federation of Labor
Federation of craft labor unions lead by Samuel Gompers that arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor, fought for worker rights in a non-violent way. It provided skilled laborers with a union that was unified, large, and strong.
Terrence V. Powderly
most remembered for leading the Knights of Labor ("KoL"), a labor union whose goal was to organize all workers, skilled and unskilled, into one big union united for workers' rights and economic and social reform
the Chinese exclusion act
Asian immigrants came to America in large numbers during the 1848 California Gold Rush and in the 1860s when the Central Pacific Railroad recruited labor to build the Transcontinental railroad. With the post Civil War economy in decline by the 1870s, anti-foreigner animosity became politicized by labor leaders and politicians who blamed "coolies" for depressed wage levels. This 1882 law effectively stifled immigration from Asia in effect until the law was repealed in 1943.
He was the creator of the American Federation of Labor. He provided a stable and unified union for skilled workers. Fought for wages and working conditions, they went on strike, boycotted and used collective bargaining
yellow dog contracts
A written contract between employers and employees in which the employees sign an agreement that they will not join a union while working for the company. Until the 1930s, widely used by employers to prevent the formation of unions, most often by permitting employers to take legal action against union organizers
A private detective agency founded in 1850. During the labor unrest of the late 19th century, Pinkertons were hired to infiltrate labor unions, and as security guards. They were well known for their involvement in the Homestead Strike, where they protected the strikebreakers.
In Chicago, home to about 80,000 Knights of Labor and a few hundred anarchists that advocated a violent overthrow of the American government, tensions had been building, and on May 4, 1886, Chicago police were advancing on a meeting that had been called to protest brutalities by authorities when a dynamite bomb was thrown, killing or injuring several dozen people. Caused animosity for labor unions.
Eugene V. Debs
He was the president and the organizer of the American Railway Union. He organized the Pullman Strike and helped organized the Social Democratic party. He was jailed for six months for disobeying a court order after the strike was over.
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