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the internal female genitalia include the


this figured shows the female resproductive system. what does "3" represent?

uterine tube

this figure shows the structure of the ovary. what does "4" represent?

secondary follicle

this figure shows the structure of the female reproductive trace. what does "3" represent?


this figure shows the female perineum. what does "1" represent?


the ____ arteries rhythmically constrict and dilate causing the uterine mucosa to blanch and flush with blood.


after puberty, the vaginal lining becomes ____ to ____

stratified squamous epithelium; resist abrasion

the ____ is the site of attachment of the embryo.


most of the natural lubrication during female sexual excitement is provided by the

greater vestibular (Bartholin) glands

the nonpregnant uterine wall consists mostly of ____, which is composed of ____

myometrum; bundles of smooth muscle

which of these is not found in the vestibule?

mons pubis

____ are found in both male and female external genitalia, but the ____ is/are only found in the female.

corpora cavernosa; vestibular bulbs

mammary glands develop within the breasts primarily

during pregnancy

breast size is determined by

the amount of adipose tissue

follicles are located in the

cortex of the ovary

the earliest sign of puberty in girls is

the onset of breast development

____ are feminizing hormones


____ act/s primarily in the uterus


the appearance of pubic and axillary hair is stage specifically called


the midlife change in estrogen and progesterone is called ____, whereas the cessation of mestruation is called ____

climacteric; menopause

during climateric, sudden ____ may cause hot flashes.

vasodilation of cutanous arteries

the term menstrual cycle specifically refers to

the cyclic changes in the uterus determined by shifting hormonal changes

the ovulated egg is

a secondary oocyte

the ovulated egg is at

metaphase II

the ovum finalizes meiosis

during fertilization

most ovulation home test kits measure ____ surge, which happens about 24 hours before ovulation.


after expelling the oocyte, the follicle becomes the ____ and secretes ____.

corpus luteum; estrogen and progesterone

a follicle is

an oocyte enclosed in follicular or granulosa cells

which of these does NOT leave a follicle when it ovulates?

a second polar body

oogenesis starts

during embryonic development

in the adult ovary, more than 90% of the follicles are found as

primordial follicles

during the follicular phase, granulosa cells secrete ____, which stimulate secretion of ____.

estradiol; LH

which of these blood hormone levels reaches its maximum during the luteal phase?


____ inhibit/s the secretion of ____ during the female sexual cycle

estradiol and progesterone; FSH and LH

Lutein cells develop from

the theca interna

the ____ phase is the one associated with menstrual cramps and typically occurs ____ of the cycle

premenstrual; days 27 to 28

during the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle

several follicles are developing antrums

the ____ sometimes expel/s copious fluid similar to prostatic fluid, which constitutes the female ejaculate.

paraurethral glands

during the plateau phase, the glans and clitoris swell as the ____ arteries dilate and the corpus or corpora ____ engorge with blood.

deep; cavernosa

during ____, the uterus is tented (erected) and the cervix is withdrawn from the vagina. Typically, the clitoris is engorged and the labia are bright red and violet due to hyperemia.


in early pregnancy, ____ stimulated growth of the corpus luteum.

human chorionic gonadotropin

the basis of pregnancy test kits is the presence of _____, which is secreted by the.

human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG); blastocyst and placenta

the basis for contraceptive pills that they mimic the ____ feedback effort of ____.

negative; estrogens and progesterone

the developing individual is called a(n) ____ during most of the first 2 weeks, a(n) ____ from 2 through 8 weeks, and a(n) ____ from the beginning of week 9 until birth.

blastocyst; embryo; fetus

the most abundant estrogen of pregnancy is ____, but one that accounts for most of the estrogenic effects in pregnancy is ____.

estriol; estradiol

the ____ provides fetal nutrition and secrets hormones that regulate pregnancy and fetal development.


which is the longest stage of labor?

the dilation (first) stage

milk ejection, stimulation of nerve endings in the _____ leads to the release of ____ from the pituitary.

nipple and areola; oxytocin

why is breast milk superior to cow milk for an infant?

cow's milk has too much protein and minerals in it

the infant's only source of nutrition during the first 2-3 days postpartum is ?


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