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50 terms

the female reproductive system

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the internal female genitalia include the
vagina
this figured shows the female resproductive system. what does "3" represent?
uterine tube
this figure shows the structure of the ovary. what does "4" represent?
secondary follicle
this figure shows the structure of the female reproductive trace. what does "3" represent?
endometrium
this figure shows the female perineum. what does "1" represent?
clitoris
the ____ arteries rhythmically constrict and dilate causing the uterine mucosa to blanch and flush with blood.
spiral
after puberty, the vaginal lining becomes ____ to ____
stratified squamous epithelium; resist abrasion
the ____ is the site of attachment of the embryo.
endometrium
most of the natural lubrication during female sexual excitement is provided by the
greater vestibular (Bartholin) glands
the nonpregnant uterine wall consists mostly of ____, which is composed of ____
myometrum; bundles of smooth muscle
which of these is not found in the vestibule?
mons pubis
____ are found in both male and female external genitalia, but the ____ is/are only found in the female.
corpora cavernosa; vestibular bulbs
mammary glands develop within the breasts primarily
during pregnancy
breast size is determined by
the amount of adipose tissue
follicles are located in the
cortex of the ovary
the earliest sign of puberty in girls is
the onset of breast development
____ are feminizing hormones
estrogens
____ act/s primarily in the uterus
progesterone
the appearance of pubic and axillary hair is stage specifically called
pubarche
the midlife change in estrogen and progesterone is called ____, whereas the cessation of mestruation is called ____
climacteric; menopause
during climateric, sudden ____ may cause hot flashes.
vasodilation of cutanous arteries
the term menstrual cycle specifically refers to
the cyclic changes in the uterus determined by shifting hormonal changes
the ovulated egg is
a secondary oocyte
the ovulated egg is at
metaphase II
the ovum finalizes meiosis
during fertilization
most ovulation home test kits measure ____ surge, which happens about 24 hours before ovulation.
LH
after expelling the oocyte, the follicle becomes the ____ and secretes ____.
corpus luteum; estrogen and progesterone
a follicle is
an oocyte enclosed in follicular or granulosa cells
which of these does NOT leave a follicle when it ovulates?
a second polar body
oogenesis starts
during embryonic development
in the adult ovary, more than 90% of the follicles are found as
primordial follicles
during the follicular phase, granulosa cells secrete ____, which stimulate secretion of ____.
estradiol; LH
which of these blood hormone levels reaches its maximum during the luteal phase?
progesterone
____ inhibit/s the secretion of ____ during the female sexual cycle
estradiol and progesterone; FSH and LH
Lutein cells develop from
the theca interna
the ____ phase is the one associated with menstrual cramps and typically occurs ____ of the cycle
premenstrual; days 27 to 28
during the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle
several follicles are developing antrums
the ____ sometimes expel/s copious fluid similar to prostatic fluid, which constitutes the female ejaculate.
paraurethral glands
during the plateau phase, the glans and clitoris swell as the ____ arteries dilate and the corpus or corpora ____ engorge with blood.
deep; cavernosa
during ____, the uterus is tented (erected) and the cervix is withdrawn from the vagina. Typically, the clitoris is engorged and the labia are bright red and violet due to hyperemia.
excitement
in early pregnancy, ____ stimulated growth of the corpus luteum.
human chorionic gonadotropin
the basis of pregnancy test kits is the presence of _____, which is secreted by the.
human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG); blastocyst and placenta
the basis for contraceptive pills that they mimic the ____ feedback effort of ____.
negative; estrogens and progesterone
the developing individual is called a(n) ____ during most of the first 2 weeks, a(n) ____ from 2 through 8 weeks, and a(n) ____ from the beginning of week 9 until birth.
blastocyst; embryo; fetus
the most abundant estrogen of pregnancy is ____, but one that accounts for most of the estrogenic effects in pregnancy is ____.
estriol; estradiol
the ____ provides fetal nutrition and secrets hormones that regulate pregnancy and fetal development.
placenta
which is the longest stage of labor?
the dilation (first) stage
milk ejection, stimulation of nerve endings in the _____ leads to the release of ____ from the pituitary.
nipple and areola; oxytocin
why is breast milk superior to cow milk for an infant?
cow's milk has too much protein and minerals in it
the infant's only source of nutrition during the first 2-3 days postpartum is ?
colostrums