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Sociology Chap 17
Terms in this set (25)
According to Durkheim, what is the most significant distinction in any religion?
the distinction between the sacred and the profane
According to sociologists of religion, under what circumstances do cults flourish?
when there is a breakdown in well-established societal belief systems
According to the text, which of the following was arguably a consequence of the third religious disestablishment in the 1960s and 1970s?
the growing strength of conservative religious denominations during and after that period
An important underlying part of the secularization debate revolves around which of the following?
the level of power and influence held by religious beliefs, officials and organizations in the larger society
At the time of the Revolutionary War, ______ Americans belonged to a religious organization. In the 1990s, that number was ______.
one in six; two in three
Evangelicals who are highly antimodern in many of their beliefs and adhere to strict codes of morality and conduct are called _____.
How did Weber theorize the connection between Protestantism and economic development?
The value of worldly asceticism inherent in Protestantism favored the accumulation of wealth, which facilitated the concentrated resources needed for the spread of capitalism.
In the first stage of most new religious movements, the movement usually derives most of its life from _________.
a charismatic leader
Jessica and her husband, Jim, are working-class Republicans who are strongly opposed to same-sex marriage. Jessica works at a day-care center out of necessity, although both she and Jim would prefer it if she could stay home instead. Jessica and Jim are most likely ______.
Martina's church slowly began losing members several years ago to a new, nondenominational worship center that opened in the same community. As a result, her pastor made some changes designed to appeal to a wider, more contemporary congregation, including changing the music selection and beginning a spiritual study group open to all members and nonmembers that became a dynamic weekly group. This is an example of ___________.
religious revitalization as a consequence of competition
Roman Catholic Church
Ming Wei has been given an assignment to write a paper explaining how Christianity and Islam spread across the world. What are the most important explanatory factors she should include in her paper?
military force and missionary work
Religious movements that emphasize the importance of inner religious life and spiritual purity over worldly concerns are ______.
Religious nationalism is _________.
the linking of strongly held religious convictions with beliefs about a people's social and political destiny
The text notes both a rising popularity in conservative Christian denominations and increasing numbers of both Catholics and Muslims in the United States. How do explanations for these phenomena differ?
The increase in number of conservative Christians seems to be largely a result of conversion from mainline Protestant churches, whereas the rise of Catholicism and Islam is largely a result of immigration.
What are some of the important factors that have led to the development and increasing popularity of the Islamic State, or ISIS?
the social, political, and economic destabilization of the Middle East as a result of Western presence and civil war
What do Christianity, Islam, and Judaism have in common?
Abraham figures prominently in each religion.
What is one of the reasons that critics of classical views on religion suggest that in modern societies, religion is losing its ability to create widespread social solidarity?
Because modern societies are more often marked by religious pluralism than religious domination, there is no longer a single set of religious values that unify the entire society.
What is secularization?
a process of the decline in the influence of religion and religious institutions
What is the definition of civil religion?
a set of religious beliefs through which a society interprets its own history in light of some conception of ultimate reality
Which of the following hypotheses might be derived from Mark Juergensmeyer's research on the relationship between religion and violence?
Rather than causing violence, religious ideas are often used to justify and/or escalate violence that began as a material, real-world struggle.
Which of the following is true about the sociological study of religion?
Sociological analyses of religion privilege social forces as explanatory factors for its appeal, rather than spiritual or psychological forces.
Which of the following statements about the position of women in religion is true?
Correctd. Islamic doctrine places women at a level of far greater subordination than Christian doctrine.
Why are world-rejecting religious movements more likely to display characteristics of total institutions than other kinds of religious movements?
Being in direct opposition to the outside world, they must take far more care to maintain separation from it by regulating many aspects of followers' lives.
Why did Marx call religion the "opium of the people"?
He argued that a belief in afterlife rewards for living a meek and humble life encouraged people to accept their oppression in this life, rather than struggling against injustice.