9626 Advanced IT

For Advanced IT Cambridge International
STUDY
PLAY
Actuator
this is type of motor that controls a mechanism or system
Alignment
positioning text so that it is in line, for example on the left, right or center
Alpha testing
initial testing of a software by a limited group of people
Analogue
this is the smooth stream of data that we process on a daily basis
Animation
a series of images played one after another to simulate movement
Array
a data structure that can store multiple items under one identifier
Artificial intelligence
computer system that performs tasks that normally require human intelligence
Assignment
providing a value to a variable
Attribute
a category of information within an entity
Bandwidth
the range of frequencies available for a communication method which determines the transmission rate; the amount of data that can be transmitted at one time
Beta testing
a sample of users test a pre-release version of the software
Biometrics
the measurement of a person's physical characteristics of a person that can be used by a computer for identification purposes
Bitmap
an image made up of small squares called pixels. Each individual pixel can only be one color
Bite rate
the number of bits that can be transferred per second
Black box testing
testing of inputs and outputs to a system or part of a system with no consideration for the workings of the system
Bluetooth
a short range wireless communication standard
Bridge
connects two LANs
Broadband
a method of faster data transmission that can carry several channels of data at once
CAD
computer-aided-design
CAM
computer-aided-manufacture
Cell
a rectangle within a spreadsheet where data can be positioned; the geographical area covered by a radio transmitter
Chaining
combining together instructions
Circuit switching
a single communication path is opened for the duration of data transmission
Client
a computer that is connected to a server
Closure
completion of a project
Cloud computing
using remote servers hosted on the internet to store data
Coding
representing data by assigning a code to it for classification or identification
Collaboration
working together
Compiler
translates high-level programming language into the an executable file in machine code
Composite key
two or more fields that form the primary key
Conception
start of a project
Condition
a statement that can be evaluated as true or false, for example 5>6
Confidential
needs to be kept secret
Construct
a control structure, such as a loop or a conditional statement
Critical path
the tasks which must be completed on time for a project to complete on time
Custom-written
software that is written especially to meet the requirements of a client
Data
raw numbers, letters, symbols, sounds or images without meaning
Database
a structure method of storing data
Data management system
software used to manage database
Data dictionary
metadata (information) about the database
Data type
the type of data being stored, for example a number, string (text)
Demographic
a particular section of a population
Design specification
illustration of how the system will look, what the data structures will be and how the system will work
Device
a hardware component of a computer system consisting of electronic components
DFD
data flow diagram which shows how data moves around a system
Diagnosis
identifying a problem or illness by analysis of the symptoms
Digital divide
the separation between those that have access to technologies and the internet and those that do not
Direct data source
data that is collected for the purpose for which it will be used
DPI/dots per inch
the resolution of an image
Dynamic data
data that changes automatically without user intervention
Ecommerce
business that is conducted electronically
Economic
relating to a country in terms of their production and consumption of goods and services
Encoding
storing data in a specific format
Encryption
scrambling data so it cannot be understood without a decryption key so that it is unreadable if intercepted
Entity
a set of data about one thing (person, place, object or event)
Entity relationship diagram
a diagram that represents the relationships between entities
Execution
the development stage of a project
Export
to prepare data for use in another application
Fibre optic
a fine strand of glass that transmits data as light beams
Field
a category of information; a common word for attribute; an individual tem of data in a database, for example forename
Filter
selecting records from the source file based on conditions; an effect, often colour related, that can be applied to a clip
Firewall
prevents external users gaining unauthorized access to a computer system
Flat file
a database stored in a single table
Foreign key
a field in a table that refers to the primary key in another table
Formula
a mathematical calculation
Frame
one screen, or page, where an image is drawn. A series of these frames are played one after the other to create the animation
Function
a separate piece of code that has an identifier and performs a task, it can be called from elsewhere in the code and returns a value; a ready-made formula representing a complex calculation
Gantt chart
a chart used for planning a project
Gateway
connects two different types of networks
GPS
global positioning system which uses satellites to determine the current location
Hardware
a physical component of a computer system
Heuristic
discovering knowledge through experience
HTTPS
hypertext transfer protocol secure
Hub
connects devices on a network in a passive manner
Humidity
the amount of water in the atmosphere
Hyperlink
a link that can be clicked to locate to another place in a document, or a different document entirely
Identifier
a name given to a variable or function
Import
to bring in data from another application
Indirect data source
data that was collected for a different purpose (secondary source)
Information
data with context and meaning
Infrared/IR
a wave of light that is invisible to the naked human eye, emitted by an object; used by remote controls
Infrastructure
the physical structures that are needed for service or operation
Input device
a device that allows data to be entered into a computer system
Internet service provider/ISP
a company that provides access to the internet
Interpreter
translates high-level programing language into machine code one line of source code at a time
Iteration
a loop, to repeat
Key
a sequence of algorithm used to encrypt or decrypt data
Key frame
a frame that has a change in the animation, for example a drawing has changed, or the start or end of the tween
Knowledge
information to which human experience has been applied
LAN
local area network, which connects devices in a single building or area
Laser
an intense beam of light used for transmitting data
Layer
an object or image given its own timeline for independent manipulation
Legitimate
looks like the real standard a document would have
Mail merge
the automatic addition of data, such as names and addresses, from a source file into a master document, such as a letter
Maintenance
changes made to the system after its implementation
Malicious code
code that is intended to harm a computer
Malware
malicious software
Management information systems
a system that provides summary data for management to enable them to make decisions
Master document
the main document that will be used for all records
Message switching
a method of transmitting data through intelligent nodes
Microprocessor
an integrated circuit used in monitoring and control technologies
Microwave
an electromagnetic wave of energy
Model
a representation of a process
Morphing
another term for shape tweening. One image changes into another image
Network
a set of computers and devices connected together so they can communicate and share resources
Network architecture
the design of a network
NFC
network interface card which connects the motherboard to a device to a network cable
None- volatile
data remains when there is no power
Normal form
the extent to which a database has been normalized
Normalization
process of structuring data in a database
Object
an image, or combination of images, that is manipulated as one item
Off the shelf
general purpose software available to a large market
Opacity
the lack of transparency in an image, or part of an image
Operating system
software that manages the hardware within a computer system
Operator
a symbol, or set of symbols that performs an image
Orientation
the direction of text, for example horizontal or vertical
Output device
a device used to communicate data or information from a computer system
Packet
a set of bits, which represent data to be transmitted
Packet switching
data that is broken down into packets are sent through different routes and reassembled by the recipient
Parameter
data used within the criteria for a query
Peer
a computer in a network that is not connected to a server and does not control another computer
Photo resistor
a specific level of electrical charge that is linked to a specific level of resistance on pressure
Pitch
a vet small square of one colour that is illuminated on a display screen. These are combined to create a bitmap image
Pixelate
when a bitmap image is enlarged, the pixels are enlarged and become visible causing the image to appear blurry
Predecessor
a task in a project that must be completed before another task can start
Primary key
a field that contains the unique identifier for a record
Private key
used in encryption to decrypt data
Prompt
a question asked to the user, which requires a response
Proof reading
checking information manually
Protocol
a set of rules that ensure data is transferred between devices correctly
Prototype
a 'mock up' of software or manufactured solution
Public key
used in encryption to encrypt data
Query
a question used to retrieve data from a database
RAD
rapid application development
Record
a common work for entity
Referential integrity
data in the foreign key of the table on the many side of relationship must exist in the primary key of the table on the one side of a relationship
Relationship
the way in which two entities in two different tables are connected
Rendering
combining the effects created in a video file to create an output video file
Repeater
amplifies the signal on a network cable
Requirements specification
what a user needs a new system to do
Resolution
the number of pixels per measurement of the image. For example; DPI
RFID
radio-frequency identification
Router
a switch, which can forward data to the correct location in the most efficient manner
Satellite
an object in space that follows an orbital path
Sensor
a device that records data about the surrounding physical environment
Server
a computer on a network, which provides resources that can be used by client devices
Simulation
using a model to predict real- life behavior
Software
programs, which give instructions to the computer
Source file
the file containing the data that will be merged into the master document
Spyware
malicious software that records what a user is doing on a computer system
Static data
data that does not normally change
Storage device
a device used to store data onto a storage medium
Storage medium
the medium on which data is stored
Streaming
a method of displaying sound or video without waiting for the whole file to be downloaded
Switch
connects devices on a network in an active manner
System flowchart
an overview of how a system works in a diagrammatic format
System specification
the hardware and software needed to run the system
Table
a set of similar data (about people, places, objects or events)
TCP/IP
a communication protocol used by the Internet
Teleworking
working from home using technologies to keep in contact with an employer
Test data
data that will be used for testing a system
Track
a single audio section in a sound or video file
Transaction
a collection of data that is exchanged; the action of buying or selling an item or service
Tunneling protocol
a tunnel between two points on a network that is governed by a set of rules
Tween
an animation where the start and end points are set. The computer generates the actual changes to make the animation smooth
User interface
communication between the user and the computer system
Utility software
software that performs some sort of maintenance on the computer system
Validation
the process of checking data matches acceptable rules
Variable
A space in memory that is given an identifier where data can be stored and changed
Vector
an image that uses geometric points and shapes. Calculations are used to draw the image
Verification
ensuring data entered into the system matches the original source
Verify
to check that data matches the original data
Virus
software that replicates itself between computer systems and is designed to cause disruption to a computer system
Volatile
data is lost when there is no power
WAN
wide area network, which connects devices that are geographically remote
Web browser
a software application for retrieving and presenting information on the World Wide Web
White box testing
testing the whole system in terms of structure and logic covering all paths through the system
Wi-Fi
wireless Ethernet with allows devices on a LAN to connect wirelessly
Wireless access point
connects Wi-Fi enable devices to a network
WNIC
wireless network interface card which enables a device to use Wi-Fi