MAN Exam 3

Includes textbook terms from sections Loescher specified in Chapters 4, 5, 7, 14 and 16
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Terms in this set (...)

Ethics (Ch. 4)
the set of moral principles or values that defines right and wrong for a person or group
Ethical behavior (Ch. 4)
behavior that conforms to a society's accepted principles of right and wrong
Workplace deviance (Ch. 4)
unethical behavior that violates organizational norms about right and wrong
Production deviance (Ch. 4)
unethical behavior that hurts the quality and quantity of work produced
Property deviance (Ch. 4)
unethical behavior aimed at the organization's property or products
Employee shrinkage (Ch. 4)
employee theft of company merchandise
Political deviance (Ch. 4)
using one's influence to harm others in the company
Personal aggression (Ch. 4)
hostile or aggressive behavior towards others
Ethical intensity (Ch. 4)
the degree of concern people have about an ethical issue
Magnitude of consequences (Ch. 4)
the total harm or benefit derived from an ethical decision
Social consensus (Ch. 4)
agreement on whether behavior is bad or good
Probability of effect (Ch. 4)
the chance that something will happen that results to harm to others
Temporal immediacy (Ch. 4)
the time between an act and the consequences the act produces
Proximity of effect (Ch. 4)
the social, psychological, cultural, or physical distance between a decision maker and those affected by his of her decisions
Concentration of effect (Ch. 4)
the total harm or benefit that an act produces on the average person
Pre-conventional level of moral development (Ch. 4)
the first level of moral development, in which people make decisions based on selfish reasons
Conventional level of moral development (Ch. 4)
the second level of development, in which people make decisions that conform to societal expectation
Post-conventional level of moral development (Ch. 4)
the third level of moral development, in which people make decisions based on internalized principles
Principle of long-term self-interest (Ch. 4)
an ethical principle that holds that you should never take any action that is not in your or your organization's long-term self-interest
Principle of religious injuctions (Ch. 4)
an ethical principle that holds that you should never take any action that is not kind and that does not build a sense of community
Principle of government requirements (Ch. 4)
an ethical principle that holds that you should never take any action that violates the law, for the law represents the minimal moral standard
Principle of individual rights (Ch. 4)
an ethical principle that holds that you should never take any action that infringes on others' agreed-upon rights
Principle of personal virtue (Ch. 4)
an ethical principle that holds that you should never do anything that is not honest, open, and truthful and that you would not be glad to see reported in newspapers or on TV
Principle of distributive justice (Ch. 4)
an ethical principle that holds that you should never take any action that harms the least fortunate among us: the poor, the uneducated, the unemployed
Principle of utilitarian benefits (Ch. 4)
an ethical principle that holds that you should never take any action that does not result in greater good for society
Overt integrity test (Ch. 4)
a written test that estimates job applicants' honest by directly asking them what they think or feel about theft or about punishment of unethical behaviors
Personality-based integrity test (Ch. 4)
a written test that indirectly estimates job applicants' honesty by measuring psychological traits, such as dependability and conscientiousness
Whistle-blowing (Ch. 4)
reporting others' ethics violations to management or legal authorities
Social responsibility (Ch. 4)
a business' obligation to pursue policies, make decisions, and take actions that benefit society
Shareholder model (Ch. 4)
a view of social responsibility that holds that an organization's overriding goal should be profit maximization for the benefit of shareholders
Stakeholder model (Ch. 4)
a theory of corporate responsibility that holds that management's most important responsibility, long-term survival, is achieved by satisfying the interests of multiple corporate stakeholders
Stakeholders (Ch. 4)
persons or groups with a stake, or legitimate interest, in a company's actions
Primary stakeholder (Ch. 4)
any group on which an organization relies for its long-term survival
Secondary stakeholder (Ch. 4)
any group that can influence or be influenced by a company and can affect public perceptions about the company's socially responsible behavior
Economic responsibility (Ch. 4)
a company's social responsibility to make a profit by producing a valued product or service
Legal responsibility (Ch. 4)
a company's social responsibility to obey society's laws and regulations
Ethical responsibility (Ch. 4)
a company's social responsibility not to violate accepted principles of right and wrong when conducting its business
Discretionary responsibilities (Ch. 4)
the social roles that a company fulfills beyond its economic, legal and ethical responsibilities
Social responsiveness (Ch. 4)
a company's strategy to respond to stakeholders' economic, legal, ethical, or discretionary expectations concerning social responsibility
Reactive strategy (Ch. 4)
a social responsiveness strategy in which a company does less than society expects
Defensive strategy (Ch. 4)
a social responsiveness strategy in which a company admits responsibility for a problem but does the least required to meet societal expectations
Accommodative strategy (Ch. 4)
a social responsiveness strategy in which a company accepts responsibility for a problem and does all that society expects to solve that problem
Proactive strategy (Ch. 4)
a social responsiveness strategy in which a company anticipates a problem before it occurs and does more than society expects to take responsibility for and address the problem
Planning (Ch. 5)
choosing a goal and developing a strategy to achieve that goal
S.M.A.R.T. goals (Ch. 5)
goals that are specific, measurable, attainable, realistic and timely
Goal commitment (Ch. 5)
the determination to achieve a goal
Action plan (Ch. 5)
a plan that lists the specific steps, people, resources, and time period needed to attain a goal
Proximal goals (Ch. 5)
short-term goals or subgoals
Distal goals (Ch. 5)
long-term or primary goals
Options-based planning (Ch. 5)
maintaining planning flexibility by making small, simultaneous investments in many alternative plans
Slack resources (Ch. 5)
a cushion of extra resources that can be used with options-based planning to adapt to unanticipated changes, problems or opportunities
Strategic plans (Ch. 5)
overall company plans that clarify how the company will serve customers and position itself against competitors over the next two to five years
Purpose statement (Ch. 5)
a statement of a company's purpose or reason for existing
Strategic objective (Ch. 5)
a more specific goal that unifies company-wide efforts, stretches and challenges the organization, and possesses a finish line and a time frame
Tactical plans (Ch. 5)
plans created and implemented by middle managers that direct behavior, efforts, and attention over the next six months to two years
Management by objectives (Ch. 5)
a four-step process in which managers and employees discuss and select goals, develop tactical plans, and meet regularly to review progress toward goal accomplishment
Operational plans (Ch. 5)
day-to-day plans, developed and implemented by lower-level managers, for producing or delivering the organization's products and services over a thirty-day to six-month period
Single-use plans (Ch. 5)
plans that cover unique, one-time-only events
Standing plans (Ch. 5)
plans used repeatedly to handle frequently recurring events
Policies (Ch. 5)
standing plans that indicate the general course of action that should be taken in response to a particular event or situation
Procedures (Ch. 5)
standing plans that indicate the specific steps that should be taken in response to a particular event
Rules and regulations (Ch. 5)
standing plans that describe how a particular action should be performed or what must happen or not happen in response to a particular event
Budgeting (Ch. 5)
quantitative planning through which managers decide how to allocate available money to best accomplish company goals
Decision making (Ch. 5)
the process of choosing a solution from available alternatives
Rational decision making (Ch. 5)
a systematic process of defining problems, evaluating alternatives, and choosing optimal solutions
Problem (Ch. 5)
a gap between a desired state and an existing state
Decision criteria (Ch. 5)
the standards used to guide judgements and decisions
Absolute comparisons (Ch. 5)
a process in which each decision criterion is compared to a standard or ranked on its own merits
Relative comparisons (Ch. 5)
a process in which each decision criterion is compared directly with every other criterion
Maximize (Ch. 5)
choosing the best alternative
Satisficing (Ch. 5)
choosing a "good enough" alternative
Organizational Innovation (Ch. 7)
the successful implementation of creative ideas in organizations
Technology cycle (Ch. 7)
a cycle that begins with the birth of a new technology and ends when that technology reaches its limits and is replaced by a newer, substantially better technology
S-curve pattern of innovation (Ch. 7)
a pattern of technological innovation characterized by slow initial progress, then rapid progress, and then slow progress again as a technology matures and reaches its limits
Innovation streams (Ch. 7)
patterns of innovation over time that can create sustainable competitive advantage
Technological discontinuity (Ch. 7)
the phase of an innovation stream in which a scientific advance or unique combination of existing technologies creates a significant breakthrough in performance or function
Discontinuous change (Ch. 7)
the phase of a technology cycle characterized by technological substitution and design competition
Technological substitution (Ch. 7)
the purchase of new technologies to replace older ones
Design competition (Ch. 7)
competition between old and new technologies to establish a new technological standard or dominant design
Dominant design (Ch. 7)
a new technological design or process that becomes that accepted market standard
Technological lockout (Ch. 7)
the inability of a company to competitively sell its products because it relies on old technology or a non-dominant design
Incremental change (Ch. 7)
the phase of a technology cycle in which companies innovate by lowering costs and improving the functioning and performance of the dominant technological design
Creative work environments (Ch. 7)
workplace cultures in which workers perceive that new ideas are welcomed, valued, and encouraged
Flow (Ch. 7)
a psychological state of effortlessness, in which you become completely absorbed in what you're doing, and time seems to pass quickly
Experiential approach to innovation (Ch. 7)
an approach to innovation that assumes a highly uncertain environment and uses intuition, flexible options, and hands-on experience to reduce uncertainty and accelerate learning and understanding
Design iteration (Ch. 7)
a cycle of repetition in which a company tests a prototype of a new product or service, improves on that design, and then builds and tests the improved prototype
Product prototype (Ch. 7)
a full-scale, working model that is being tested for design, function, and reliability
Testing (Ch. 7)
the systematic comparison of different product designs or design iterations
Milestones (Ch. 7)
the formal project review points used to assess progress and performance
Multifunctional teams (Ch. 7)
work teams composed of people from different departments
Compression approach to innovation (Ch. 7)
an approach to innovation which assumes that incremental innovation can be planned using a series of steps and that compressing those steps can speed innovation
Generational change (Ch. 7)
change based on incremental improvements to a dominant technological design such that the improved technology is fully backward compatible with the older technology
Organizational decline (Ch. 7)
a large decrease in organizational performance that occurs when companies don't anticipate, recognize, neutralize, or adapt to the internal or external pressures that threaten their survival
Change forces (Ch. 7)
forces that produce differences in the form, quality, or condition of an organization over time
Resistance forces (Ch. 7)
forces that support the existing conditions in organizations
Resistance to change (Ch. 7)
opposition to change resulting from self-interest, misunderstanding and distrust, and a general intolerance for change
Unfreezing (Ch. 7)
getting the people affected by change to believe that change is needed
Change intervention (Ch. 7)
the process used to get workers and managers to change their behaviors and work practices
Refreezing (Ch. 7)
supporting and reinforcing new changes so that they stick
Coercion (Ch. 7)
the use of formal power and authority to force others to change
Results-drive change (Ch. 7)
change created quickly by focusing on the measurement and improvement of results
General Electric workout (Ch. 7)
a three-day meeting in which managers and employees from different levels and parts of an organization quickly generate and act on solutions to specific business problems
Organizational development (Ch. 7)
a philosophy and collection of planned change interventions designed to improve an organization's long-term health and performance
Change agent (Ch. 7)
the person formally in charge of guiding a change effort
Leadership (Ch. 14)
the process of influencing others to achieve group or organizational goals
Strategic leadership (Ch. 14)
the ability to anticipate, envision, maintain flexibility, think strategically, and work with others to initiate changes that will create a positive future for an organization
Visionary leadership (Ch. 14)
leadership that creates a positive image of the future that motivates organizational members and provides direction for future planning and goal setting
Charismatic leadership (Ch. 14)
the behavioral tendencies and personal characteristics of leaders that create an exceptionally strong relationship between them and their followers
Ethical charismatics (Ch. 14)
charismatic leaders who provide developmental opportunities for followers, are open to positive and negative feedback, recognize others' contributions, share information, and have moral standards that emphasize the larger interests of the group, organization or society
Unethical charismatics (Ch. 14)
charismatic leaders who control and manipulate followers, do what is best for themselves instead of their organizations, want to hear only positive feedback,s hare only information that is beneficial to themselves, and have moral standards that put their interests before everyone else's
Transformational leadership (Ch. 14)
leadership that generates awareness and acceptance of a group's purpose and mission and gets employees to see beyond their own needs and self-interests for the good of the group
Transactional leadership (Ch. 14)
leadership based on an exchange process in which followers are rewarded for good performance and punished for poor performance
Control (Ch. 16)
a regulatory process of establishing standards to achieve organizational goals, comparing actual performance against the standards, and taking corrective action when necessary
Standards (Ch. 16)
a basis of comparison for measuring the extent to which various kinds of organizational performance are satisfactory or unsatisfactory
Benchmarking (Ch. 16)
the process of identifying outstanding practices, processes, and standards in other countries and adapting them to your country
Cybernetic (Ch. 16)
the process of steering or keeping on course
Feedback control (Ch. 16)
a mechanism for gathering information about performance deficiencies after they occur
Concurrent control (Ch. 16)
a mechanism for gathering information about performance deficiencies as they occur, thereby eliminating or shortening the delay between performance and feedback
Feedforward control (Ch. 16)
a mechanism for monitoring performance inputs rather than outputs to prevent or minimize performance deficiencies before they occur
Control loss (Ch. 16)
the situation in which behavior and work procedures do not conform to standards
Regulation costs (Ch. 16)
the costs associated with implementing or maintaining control
Cybernetic feasibility (Ch. 16)
the extent to which it is possible to implement each step in the control process
Bureaucratic control (Ch. 16)
the use of hierarchical authority to influence employee behavior by rewarding or punishing employees for compliance or noncompliance with organizational policies, rules and procedures
Objective control (Ch. 16)
the use of observable measures of worker behavior or outputs to assess performance and influence behavior
Behavior control (Ch. 16)
the regulation of the behaviors and actions that workers perform on the job
Output control (Ch. 16)
the regulation of workers' results or outputs through rewards and incentives
Normative control (Ch. 16)
the regulation of workers' behavior and decisions through widely shared organizational values and beliefs
Concertive control (Ch. 16)
the regulation of workers' behavior and decisions through work group values and beliefs
Self-control (self-management) (Ch. 16)
a control system in which managers and workers control their own behavior by setting their own goals, monitoring their own progress, and rewarding themselves for goal achievement
Balanced scorecard (Ch. 16)
measurement of organizational performance in four equally important areas: finances, customers, internal operations, and innovation and learning
Sub-optimization (Ch. 16)
performance improvement in one part of an organization but only at the expense of decreased performance in another part
Cash flow analysis (Ch. 16)
a type of analysis that predicts how changes in a business will affect its ability to take in more cash than it pays out
Balance sheets (Ch. 16)
accounting statements that provide a snapshot of a company's financial position at a particular time
Income statements (Ch. 16)
accounting statements, also called "profit and loss statements," that show what has happened to an organization's income, expenses, and net profit over a period of time
Financial ratios (Ch. 16)
calculations typically used to track a business's liquidity (cash), efficiency, and profitability over time compared to other businesses in its industry
Budgets (Ch. 16)
quantitative plans through which managers decide how to allocate available money to best accomplish company goals
Economic value added (EVA) (Ch. 16)
the amount by which company profits (revenues minus expenses minus taxes) exceed the cost of capital in a given year
Customer defections (Ch. 16)
a performance assessment in which companies identify which customers are leaving and measure the rate at which they are leaving
Value (Ch. 16)
customer perception that the product quality is excellent for the price offered