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Class Agnatha

without jaws, lack paired appendages

order ostracodermi

first known vertebrates, paleozoic, bony plates in dermis

order cyclostomata

hagfish and lamprey, cartilage skeleton, adults parasitic

class placodermi

paleozoic, bony plates in dermis, jaws present, paired appendages

class chondrichthyes

paleozoic, cartilage skeleton, skarkes, skates, and rays

class osteichthyes

most numerous of fishes, bone skeleton, operculum on gill chamber

group crossopterygii

lobe fin fish, skeleton of fin like tetrapod, latimeria

group dipnoi


class amphibia

double life, end of paleozoic

order caudata


order anura

frogs and toads

order apoda

worm-like amphibians, lack limbs, caecilians

class reptilia

first amniotes, cleidoic egg, late paleozic,

order chelonia


order rhynchocephalia

sphenodon, parapineal eye

order squamata

snakes and lizards

order crocodilia

crocodile, alligators, caymans

class aves


subclass archaeornithes


subclass neornithes

modern birds, homeothermal, developed sternum

class mammalia

hair, mammary glands, sweat glands, mesozoic

order monotremata

egg-laying mammals, platypus, spiny anteater, lack nipples, cloaca

order marsupialia

pouched mammals, kangaroo

order insectivora

start of placentals, moles and shrews

order chiroptera

flying mammals, bats

order primates

well developed brain, opposable thumb, monkies, apes, man

order carnivora

meat eaters, well developed canine teeth, dog, cat

order rodentia

rodents, incisors, rats, mice, squirrels

order lagomorpha

rabbits, hares, split upper lip

order catacea

whales, dolphins

order perissodactyla

odd toed ungulates, horse, rhino

order artiodactyla

even toed ungulates, cattle, pigs, sheep

order edentata


order proboscidia


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