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110 terms

Speech Key Terms

For The Final
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Closure
The quality of a conclusion that makes a speech "sound finished"
Delivery outline
A condensed and abbreviated outline from which speaking notes are developed
Mapping
Use of geometric shapes to sketch how all the main ideas, subpoints, and supporting material of a speech relate to the central idea and to one another
Preparation outline
A detailed outline that includes main ideas, subpoints, and supporting material and that may also include a speech's specific purpose, introduction, blueprint, signposts, and conclusion
Standard outline form
Numbered and lettered headings and subheadings arranged hierarchically to indicate the relationships among the various parts of a speech
Alliteration
The repetition of a consonant sound (usually the first consonant) several times in a phrase, clause, or sentence
Antithesis
Opposition, such as that used in two-part sentences whose parts have parallel structures but contrasting meanings
Cliché
An overused expression
Connotation
The meaning listeners associate with a word, based on past experience
Crisis rhetoric
Language used by speakers during momentous or overwhelming times
Denotation
The literal meaning of a word
Ethnic vernacular
A variety of English that includes words and phrases used by a specific ethnic group
Figure of speech
Language that deviates from the ordinary, expected meanings of words to make a description or comparison unique, vivid, and memorable
Inversion
Reversal of the normal word order of a phrase or sentence
Jargon
The specialized language of a profession or hobby
Metaphor
An implied comparison of two things or concepts that is similar in some vital way
Omission
Leaving out a word or phrase the listener expects to hear
Parallelism
Use of the same grammatical pattern for two or more clauses or sentences
Personification
The attribution of human qualities to inanimate things or ideas
Regionalisms
A word or phrase used uniquely by speakers in one part of a country
Repetition
Use of a key word or phrase more than once for emphasis
Simile
A comparison between two things that uses the word like or as
Standard U.S. English
The English taught by schools and used in the media, business, and government in the United States
Suspension
Withholding a key word or phrase until the end of a sentence
Thesaurus
A book containing a store of words and their synonyms
Articulation
The production of clear and distinct speech sounds
Boom microphone
A microphone that is suspended from a bar and moved to follow the speaker; often used in movies and TV
Dialect
A consistent style of pronouncing words that is common to an ethnic group or geographic region
Emotional contagion theory
A theory suggesting that people "catch" the emotions of others
Extemporaneous speaking
Speaking from a written or memorized speech outline without having the exact wording of the speech in front of you or in memory
Immediacy
The degree of physical or psychological closeness between people
Immediacy behaviors
Nonverbal expressions of closeness to and liking for an audience, made through such means as physical approach or eye contact
Impromptu speaking
Delivering a speech without advance preparation
Inflection
The variation of the pitch of the voice
Lavaliere microphone
A microphone that can be clipped to an article of clothing or worn on a cord around the neck
Manuscript speaking
Reading a speech from a written text
Memorized speaking
Delivering a speech word for word from memory without using notes
Nonverbal communication
Communication other than written or spoken language that creates meaning
Nonverbal-expectancy theory
A communication theory suggesting that if listeners' expectations about how communication should be expressed are violated, listeners will feel less favorable toward the communicator of the message
Pitch
The highness or lowness of voice sounds
Pronunciation
The proper use of sounds to form words clearly and accurately
Stationary microphone
A microphone that is found attached to a podium, sitting on a desk, or standing on the floor
Volume
The softness or loudness of a speaker's voice
Bar graph
A graph in which bars of various lengths represent information
Chart
A display that summarizes and presents a great deal of information in a small amount of space
Clip art
Images or pictures stored in a computer file or in printed form that can be used in a presentation aid
Font
A particular style of typeface
Graph
A pictorial representation of statistical data
Line graph
A graph that uses lines or curves to show relationships between two or more variables
Model
A small object that represents a larger object
Picture graph
A graph that uses images or pictures to symbolize data
Pie graph
A circular graph divided into wedges that show the distribution of data
Presentation aid
Any tangible object, image, or sound that helps to communicate an idea to an audience
Visual rhetoric
The use of images as an integrated element in the total communication effort a speaker makes to achieve the speaking goal
Andragogy
The art and science of teaching adults
Pedagogy
The art and science of teaching children
Speech to inform
A speech that shares information with others about ideas, concepts, principles, or processes to enhance their knowledge or understanding
Word picture
A vivid description that appeals to the senses
Attitude
A predisposition to respond favorably (like) or unfavorably (dislike) to something
Belief
An individual's perception of what is true or false
Benefit
A good result that creates a positive emotional response in the listener
Cognitive dissonance
The sense of mental discomfort that prompts a person to change when new information conflicts with previously organized thought patterns
Direct persuasion route
Persuasion that occurs when audience members critically examine evidence and arguments
Elaborate
From the standpoint of the elaboration likelihood model (ELM) of persuasion, to think about information, ideas, and issues related to the content of a message
Elaboration likelihood model (ELM) of persuasion
The theory that listeners can be persuaded directly, by logic, reasoning, and evidence, or indirectly, by their overall impression of the message
Ethos
The term that Aristotle used to refer to a speaker's credibility
Feature
A characteristic of something you are describing
Indirect persuasion route
Persuasion that occurs as a result of factors peripheral to a speaker's logic and argument, such as the speaker's charisma or emotional appeals
Logos
Literally, "the word"; the term that Aristotle used to refer to logic-the formal system of using rules to reach a rational conclusion
Motivation
An internal force that drives people to achieve their goals
Pathos
The term that Aristotle used to refer to appeals to emotion
Persuasion
The process of changing or reinforcing a listener's attitudes, beliefs, values, or behavior
Proposition
A statement with which a speaker wants an audience to agree
Proposition of fact
A proposition that focuses on whether something is true or false or whether it did or did not happen
Proposition of policy
A proposition that advocates a change in a policy, procedure, or behavior
Proposition of value
A proposition that calls for a listener to judge the worth or importance of something
Self-actualization
The need to achieve one's highest potential
Social judgment theory
The theory that listeners; responses to persuasive messages fall in the category responses to persuasive messages fall in the category of latitude of acceptance, the latitude of rejection, or the latitude of no commitment
Value
An enduring concept of right and wrong, good and bad
Ad hominem
An attack on irrelevant personal characteristics of the person who is proposing an idea rather than on the idea itself
Appeal to misplaced authority
Use of the testimony of an expert in a given field to endorse an idea or product for which the expert does not have the appropriate credentials or expertise
Bandwagon fallacy
Reasoning that suggests that because everyone else believes something or is doing something, then it must be valid or correct
Causal fallacy
A faulty cause-and-effect connection between two things or events
Causal reasoning
Reasoning in which the relationship between two or more events leads the person to conclude that one or more of the events leads the person to conclude that one or more of the events caused the others
Charisma
A form of dynamism characteristic of a talented, charming, attractive speaker
Competence
An aspect of a speaker's credibility that reflects whether the speaker is perceive as informed, skilled, or knowledgeable
Conclusion
The logical outcome of a deductive argument, which stems form the major premise and the minor premise
Deductive reasoning
Reasoning that moves from a general statement or principle to a specific, certain conclusion
Demagogue
A speaker who attempts to gain control over others by using unethical emotional pleas and appeals to listeners' prejudices
Derived credibility
The perception of a speaker's credibility that an audience forms during a speech
Dynamism
An aspect of a speaker's credibility that reflects whether speaker is perceived as energetic
Either/ or fallacy
The oversimplification of an issue into a choice between only tow outcomes or possibilities
Emotional response theory
Human emotional responses can be classified as eliciting feelings of pleasure, arousal, or dominance
Example
An illustration used to dramatize or clarify a fact
Fact
Information that has been proven to be true through direct observation
Fallacy
False reasoning that occurs when someone attempts to persuade without adequate evidence or with arguments that are irrelevant or inappropriate
Generalization
An all-encompassing statement
Hasty generalization
A conclusion reached without adequate evidence
Inductive reasoning
Reasoning that uses specific instances or examples to reach a general, probable conclusion
Inference
A conclusion based on partial information or an evaluation that has not been directly observed
Initial credibility
The impression of a speaker's credibility that listeners have before the speaker starts a speech
Major premise
A general statement that is the first element of a syllogism
Minor premise
A specific statement about an example that is linked to the major premise; the second element of a syllogism
Myth
A belief based on the shared values, cultural heritage, and faith of a group of people
Non sequitur
Latin for "it does not follow"; an idea or conclusion that does not logically relate to or follow from the previous idea or conclusion
Red herring
Irrelevant facts or information used to distract someone from the issue under discussion
Reluctant testimony
A statement by someone who has reversed his or her position a given issue
Syllogism
A three-part way of developing an argument, using a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion
Terminal credibility
The final impression listeners have of a speaker's credibility, after a speech concludes
Trustworthiness
An aspect of a speaker's credibility that reflects whether the speaker is perceived as believable and honest