Lifespan Chs.12, 13 & 16
Terms in this set (62)
physical characteristics that define male and female
all features that a society associates with or considers appropriate for being men and women
the patterns of behavior that females and males should adopt in a particular society
overgeneralized and largely inaccurate beliefs about what males and females are like
an orientation that emphasizes connectedness to others and includes traits and emotions and sensitivity to others
an orientation toward individual action and achievement that emphasizes traits of dominance, independence, assertiveness and competitiveness
analyzing and exploring how things work
gender similarities hypothesis
states that: males and females are similar on most, but not all, psychological variables
suggests that differences in the roles that women and men play in society do a lot to create and maintain gender stereotyping
an awareness that people are either a boy or girl by age 2.5 to 3
children not only become aware that they are biological males or females but also acquire the motives, values, and patterns of behavior that their culture considers appropriate
separating into male and female peer groups and interacting far more often with their own sex
when gender differences may be magnified by hormonal changes associated with puberty and increased pressure to conform to gender roles
gender-role development proposed by John Money and Anke Ehrhardt (1972) calls attention to the ways in which biological events influence the development of boys and girls
girls prenatally exposed to excess androgens
the realization that one's sex is also stable
the understanding that gender is stable over time
gender schema (schemata)
organized sets of beliefs and expectations about males and females that influence the kinds of information they will attempt to remember
balancing or blending of both agentic traits and communal traits
the requirement that mothers and fathers adopt different roles to raise children successfully
instead of giving up traits with age, men and women retain their gender-typed qualities but also add qualities traditionally associated with the opposite sex
post-traumatic stress disorder
clinical disorder involving nightmares, flashbacks to the traumatizing events, and feelings of helplessness and anxiety in the face of danger
preference for sexual partners of the same or other sex
sexual behavior that is viewed as appropriate for males is considered inappropriate for females and vice versa
sexual activity involving contact between the mouth and genitals
thinking about the perceptions, thoughts, emotions, motives and behaviors of self, other people, groups and even whole social systems
false belief task
assesses the understanding that people can hold incorrect beliefs and that these beliefs and that these beliefs, even though correct, can influence their behavior
theory of mind
the understanding that people have mental states such as desire, beliefs and intentions and that these mental stages guide their behavior
toddlers talk about what they want and explain their own behavior and that of others in terms of wants or desire
around age four children begin to appreciate that people do what they do because they desire certain things and because they believe that certain actions will help them fulfill their desires
neurons that are activated both when we perform an action and when we observe someone else perform the same action
social perspective-taking skills
the ability to adopt anthers person's perspective and understand their thoughts and feelings in relation to your own
the ability to distinguish right from wrong, to act on this distinction and to experience pride when we do the right things and guilt or shame when we do not
the feelings one experiences after making a decision involving right and wrong
is the vicarious experiencing of another persons feelings
positive social acts that reflect concern for the welfare of others
the thinking process involved in deciding whether an act is right or wrong
equal give and take between the parties in a relationship that makes us ask whether what looks fair or just from our point of view would look equally fair from other peoples points of view.
during the preschool years children show little awareness or understanding of rules and cannot be considered moral beings
children 6 to 10 years old take rules seriously believing that they are handed down by parents and other authority figures and are sacred and unalterable. they also judge rule violations as wrong based on the extent of the danger done not paying much attention to whether the violator had good or bad intentions.
at age 10 or 11 piaget said most children enter a final stage of moral development in which they begin to appreciate that rules are agreements between individuals; agreements that can be changed through a consensus of those individuals. in judging actions they pay more attention to whether the persons intentions were good or bad then to the consequences to his act.
rules are external to the self rather than internalized. the child conforms to rules and imposed by authority figures to avoid punishment or to obtain personal rewards
the individual defines what is right in terms of broad principles of justice that have validity apart form the views of particular authority figures. the individual may distinguish between what is morally right and what is legal. thus the person transcends the perspective of particular social groups or authorities and begins to take the perspective of all individuals mechanisms that allow us to avoid condemning ourselves when we engage immoral behavior even though we know the difference between right and wrong.
mechanisms that allow is to us to avoid condemning ourselves when we engage in immoral behavior, even through we know the difference between right and wrong
lacking any sense of morality a close emotionally positive and cooperative relationship in which child and care giver care about each other and are sensitive to each others needs.
mutually responsive orientation
a close emotionally positive and cooperative relationship in which child and care giver care about each other and are sensitive to each others needs.
standards that focus on the welfare and basic rights of individuals
standards determined by social consensus that tell us what is appropriate in particular social settings.
withholding attention affection or approval after a child misbehaves; in other words creating anxiety by threatening a loss of reinforcement.
using power to threaten chastise administer take away privileges and so on; in other words using punishment.
explaining to a child why the behavior is wrong and should be changed by emphasizing how it effects other people.
proactive parenting strategies
tactics designed to prevent misbehavior and therefore reduce the need for correction or discipline
law breaking by a minor.
a persistant pattern of violating the rights of others or age appropriate societal norms through such behaviors as fighting, bullying and cruelty
coercive family environment
family members are locked in power struggles each trying to control the others through negative coercive
repeatedly inflicting harm through words or actions on weaker peers who often cannot defend themselves
morality of justice
masculine; focuses on laws and rules individual rights and fairness
morality of care
feminine; focused on an obligation to be selfless and look after the welfare of other people
dual-process model of morality
proposed by some scholars in which both deliberate thought and emotion intuition informed decisions about moral issues and motivate behavioral
religiousness has generally been defined as sharing the beliefs and participating in the practices of an organized religion
involves a quest for ultimate meaning and for connection with something greater than oneself.
the individual has internalize many moral values. he strives to obey the rules set by others at first when to win their approval later to maintain social order.
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