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Semester Exam US History
Terms in this set (104)
Articles of Confederation
the United States' first national government
Weaknesses of the AOC
It can't force states to pay taxes, legislative branch only, etc...couldn't shut down Shay's Rebellion...
ONE house in legislative branch
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
BLUEPRINT for Adding new states as the US expands West
-need 60,000 people to become a state
-forms a government
-slavery not allowed
-one of the few successes of the AOC
Land Ordinance of 1785
divided (grids) the land into townships and promoted the growth of the Northwest Territories
Treaty of Paris 1783
-Britain officially recognizes American independence
-The Borders of the US are set.
-America will attempt to pay back Loyalists for their losses
land in the Northwest of the US, which at that time ended at the Mississippi River
Amount of people needed to become a state...
-Rebellion by Farmers in Massachusetts following the Revolutionary War.
-Exposed the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation and led to the Constitutional Convention.
this meeting was called to 'revise' the AOC, but that plan and the AOC was trashed and they began to create a new STRONGER National government
"Father of the Constitution"
Also wrote the Bill of Rights
This PLAN wanted the Legislative Branch representation to be based on state POPULATION. Also wanted a Bicameral legislature.
New Jersey Plan
Wanted a Unicameral legislature with all states getting 1 vote or EQUAL votes.
Roger Sherman created a compromise to solve the issue between the Big and Small States.
Three Branches of Government
Bicameral Legislature includes a...
**House of Representatives, based on Population -->makes the Big States happy
**Senate - each state gets 2 --> makes the Small States happy
Representative from Connecticut that creates the Great Compromise
Legislature with 2 houses
Bill of Rights
First 10 amendments added to the constitution
5 slaves will count as 3 people in the census
This will have a major impact on representation in the House of Representatives, which is based on POPULATION.
Checks and Balances
A principle put in the Constitution to ensure the US doesn't end up with a tyrant, or an all powerful leader/branch.
Each of the branches is able to check the power of the others to ensure balance.
Separation of Power
The powers of the government are divided into three branches: Legislative, Executive, and Judicial
The Sharing of powers between the National Government and State Governments.
British settlers arrive in Jamestown, Virginia.
Eventually becomes the 1st successful English colony in the New World.
The Pilgrims arrive in the New World and write the Mayflower Compact before setting foot on land.
The DoI is written by Thomas Jefferson.
The Constitution is created.
Magna Carta is created.
Limits the power of the King
Provides basic rights to citizens
Must consult Parliament to raise taxes
First instance of self-government
Establish just and fair laws for the good of the colony
"Civil body politic" - a group of people coming together as a law making body.
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
First Written Constitution in the colonies
Establish voting rights to all white landowners
Basic plan of government for Connecticut
English Bill of Rights
Protects basic rights of citizens in England
Precursor to the American Bill of Rights
Ideas taken from the English BoR...
2nd Amendment - Right to Bear Arms
4th -- Protection from Search and Seizure
6th -- Right to Trial by Jury
8th -- Protection from cruel and unusual punishment
1st Successful English Colony, Jamestown, is located here.
Puritans and PILGRIMS settle here.
Escape Persecution / Seeking Religious Freedom
Roger Williams created this colony for
Debtors, debtors, debtors...
Which group of people can we put closest to our enemy, Spanish-controlled Florida? How about debtors! They can be the buffer between our enemy and the rich plantations above Georgia...
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
Expanded representative government by giving voting rights to more people. Therefore, more people can vote and have a say in government.
Formerly New Netherlands
Founded by William Penn as a colony for Quakers
Penn thought of Pennsylvania as his "holy experiment" and allowed other religions to practice freely. The Quakers were one of the first groups to abolish slavery.
A colony created for Catholics to freely practice their religion. The Acts of Toleration in 1649 were created to ensure the Catholics maintained this right as more and more Protestants inhabited the colony.
French and Indian War
War fought between the French and British. The French were long time friends with many Native tribes and were able to use their unorthodox fighting skills to help in the war. Ultimately, the British adapted and won the war. The Treaty of Paris 1763 officially ends the war and leads to the taxation of the colonists.
Proclamation of 1763
Colonists were forbidden to settle west of the Appalachian Mountains. Britain did not want any more problems with the Natives that lived west of the mountains.
British colonists objected to the Proclamation of 1763 because they...
resented the limits it imposed on Westward Expansion
How were the colonies affected by the spread of new ideas called Enlightenment?
they used 'reason' and 'logic' to improve their New World.
Boston and New Orleans were both founded as....
The Middle Colonies had a Cold, Moderate, or Warm climate?
Tea Act --> Boston Tea Party --> ???
Parliament passes the Intolerable Acts
The Northwest Ordinance is considered a historical milestone because it...
established a method for admitting new states to the Union
What is Patrick Henry's message in this excerpt?
"Give me liberty or give me death!"
Freedom is worth dying for...
How did James Armistead help the Americans during the American Revolutionary War?
He spied for the patriot military.
"America may boast that she has accomplished what no power before her ever did, contending with Britain. Captured 2 of their celebrated Generals and each an army of thousands of veteran troops to support them."
Abigail Adams letter to John Adams, December 9, 1781
What is she referencing?
The American victory at the Battle of Yorktown.
Proposed by Congress with a 2/3rds vote in both houses
Ratified by the legislatures of 3/4ths of the states = ???
Which of the following completes the diagram?
The Amendment Process
The Sugar Act, Quartering Act, and Stamp Act
How did these contribute to the start of the American Revolutionary War?
by angering colonists who believed that their civil liberties had been violated
Why did England, France, and the Netherlands seek a Northwest Passage to Asia?
new ways to reach the riches of Asia
How did Nathan Hale, "I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country", help the Americans during the American Revolutionary War?
He spied for General Washington, he was caught and hung.
Due Process of Law includes: Guarantee of a Speedy Trial, Freedom from unreasonable search and seizure, and ???
Protection from Cruel and Unusual Punishment
"The President shall have power, by and with the advice and Consent of the Senate, to make treaties, provided 2/3rds of the Senators present concur."
This excerpt, from the US Constitution, provides one example of which Constitutional Principle?
Checks and Balances
President -- Executive Branch
Senate -- Legislative Branch
In this example the Leg. Branch is checking the power of the Executive Branch.
"Be it enacted by the General Assembly, that no man shall be compelled to frequent or support any religious worship, place, or ministry whatsoever, nor shall...otherwise suffer on account of his religious opinions or belief; but that all men shall be free to profess, and by argument to maintain, their opinion in matters of religion..." - the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom
Which DOCUMENT was most influenced by this statute?
Bill of Rights
How did the Americans and French defeat the British at the Battle of Yorktown?
Washington surrounded and trapped Cornwallis in Virginia.
In June, the Continental Congress appoints a committee to prepare a document. Thomas Jefferson is assigned the task.
In July, Congress debates and revises the document and then officially approves the document.
This sequence of events resulted in the adoption of the...?
Declaration of Independence
A certain small town has many choices for people who want to attend religious services, including two churches, a synagogue, a cathedral, a mosque, and a temple.
These choices are protected by the...?
In a debate over the ratification of the US Constitution, which point would have been made by a Federalist?
"The existing national government lacks the power to perform essential functions."
Which correctly describes the Three-Fifths Compromise?
a portion of the slave population was counted for legislative representation
"Here in Autumn of 1777, American forces met, defeated, and forced major British Army to surrender. This crucial American victory in the Battle of ??? renewed Patriot's hopes for independence, secured essential foreign recognition and support, and forever changed the face of the world."
Which best completes this excerpt?
Why did the Puritans decide to leave England?
for religious freedom
"That is any person shall write...false, scandalous and malicious writings against the government of the United States...then such person...shall be punished by a fine not exceeding $2,000 and by imprisonment not exceeding two years."
Which constitutional guarantee did this act violate?
Freedom of the Press
Which excerpt from the Declaration of Independence best explains why colonists were unhappy about their lack of representation in the British Parliament?
"For imposing taxes on us without our consent."
The Colonial Transatlantic "Triangular" Trade between the 1500's and the 1800's brought an estimated 10 million enslaved Africans to the Americas. From England and Spain to the West Coast of Africa to the Americas and back to Europe to start all again.
Which factor most encouraged the growth of this unique trade between Continents?
the profitability of cash crop agriculture
Why did the Anti-Federalists demand that a bill of rights be added to the US Constitution?
to protect individual freedoms from the federal government
"It is essential to the freedom and security of a free people, that no taxes be imposed upon them but by their own consent, or their representatives." Sons of Liberty, address tot he public, New York, Dec 15, 1773.
The excerpt above reflects the dissatisfaction of American colonists with the....?
economic policies imposed by Great Britain following the French and Indian War
How did Wentworth Cheswell help the Americans during the American Revolutionary War?
He rode from Boston to warn colonists that the British were coming...
...like Paul Revere.
**and excessive bail hath been required of persons committed in criminal case to elude the benefit of the laws made for the liberty of the subjects
**and excessive fines have been imposed
**and illegal and cruel punishments inflicted
Which US DOCUMENT was created to guarantee protection against these injustices?
The US Constitution
Why did Ben Franklin's Albany Plan of Union not get approved?
colonies did not want to give up any power to a central council.
When citizens report for Jury Duty, they are helping uphold a constitutional right guarantee by the....
The right to a speedy and public trial with a jury of your peers.
With which of the following arguments would the authors of the Federalist Papers most likely have agreed?
Having a stronger central government will make the country more stable and prosperous.
"he has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good...
--Declaration of Independence, 1776
Which provision of the US Constitution reflects this grievance?
Congress can override a presidential veto with a two-thirds majority vote in both houses.
3. Pursuit of Happiness
The Rights listed above were...
defined by Thomas Jefferson in the Declaration of Independence.
"Fourth Amendment -- The Right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and affects against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause...
The Constitutional amendment excerpted above protects people in the US from?
excessive surveillance by the government
*Immigrated to North America
*Became a Revolutionary Writer and Philosopher
*Wrote the influential pamphlet "Common Sense"
*Supported the French Revolution
Which prominent Revolutionary figure is described above?
"In 1636, Thomas Hooker...established teh first English settlement in Connecticut. Convinced that government should rest on free consent. He did ??WHAT??
Which statement best completes this sentence?
extended voting rights beyond church members
Which newspaper headline provides the best example of civic duty?
"Jurors return Verdict in Hit and Run Case"
How did geography influence the early economic development of New York, Boston, and Charleston?
natural harbors provided access to markets
How did Bernardo de Galvez help the Americans during the American Revolutionary War?
he secretly supplied medicine and gunpowder to the Patriots
Which statement accurately describes the reasons for establishing Plymouth and Jamestown?
Plymouth was founded as a refuge from religious persecution, while Jamestown was founded for commercial profit
Which of the following was a primary reason France sought to colonize North America?
to profit from trading in furs and other goods
The Constitution describes two ways to PROPOSE an amendment. Which of the following gives an example of one way?
two thirds of both congressional houses vote in favor of proposing the amendment
*Intolerable acts imposed
*First Continental Congress Convened
*Thomas Paine's Common Sense Published
All the events listed above occurred during...?
the Revolutionary Era
From 1690 to 1760, Parliament and the King of England allowed colonists in America to exercise a great deal of control over local and regional matters. Historians have described this practice as "salutary neglect."
Which of the following happened as a direct result of this policy?
The colonies developed a strong tradition of self-government.
Virginia Plan -- ???? -- New Jersey Plan
Which of the following should replace the question mark in the diagram above?
The Great Compromise
1776 Washington and troops flee New York
1777 Americans win the Battle of Saratoga
1780 The British capture Charleston
1783 Americans and the British sign the Treaty of Paris
How did Marquis de Lafayette help the Americans during the American Revolution?
He convinced the French to send thousands of troops to fight with the Patriot Army.
Which newspaper headline provides the best example of a First Amendment guarantee in action?
"Muslims hold State Convention Downtown Carrollton"
"The Plan of government now proposed is evidently calculated totally to change, in time, our condition as a people. Instead of being thirteen republics, under a federal head, it is clearly designed to make us one consolidated government." Federal Farmer, 1787
Those in favor of ratifying the Constitution would most likely respond to this concern by pointing out that...?
Power is divided between the federal government and state government.
After the end of the Revolutionary War, states were eager to expand into newly available territory. These states of New York, Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Virginia argued over competing claims to land West of the Appalachian Mountains.
This conflict was addressed by the....?
How did Congress attempt to achieve peace with Britain?
Sent the Olive Branch Petition to King George III declaring loyalty.
The most important result of the Battle of Saratoga was that...
France officially recognized and formed an alliance with the US government.
The Puritans founded the Massachusetts Bay Colony to escape persecution.
**Roger Williams was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony and formed a new colony that did not have a state church.
**Anne Hutchinson was expelled from the Massachusetts Bay Colony for dissenting against church doctrine.
These statements describe events in colonial America that are related to...?
The establishment of the principle of religious freedom.
Catholics immigrated to the Maryland Colony in the 17th Century primarily to...
NBC HEADLINE NEWS:
"A new mosque recently opened in the suburb of Dallas. The leaders did not seek publicity for the happy occasion, only continued peace with their neighbors: a Jewish synagogue next door and a Baptist church across the street. Originally named "Gibbs Station", this small north Texas community was renamed in 1892 to Coppell, was settled in the 1840's by German and French immigrants from the Peters Colony Land Grant."
This event best demonstrates which feature of the American way of life...?
The First Amendment guarantees personal freedoms
Patrick Henry opposed ratifying the US Constitution because he believed that under it...
the states would surrender too much power to the Federal government
Which colonies economy was based on whaling, shipbuilding, and sawmill ports?
New England Colonies
"The Powers not delegated to the US by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the US respectively, or to the people." --10th Amendment, US Constitution
Which principle of US Government is most clearly reflected in the amendment above?
The sharing of power between the National and State governments.
in 1787, the US was at a crossroads. Farmers in western Massachusetts had rebelled the year before over property taxes. The state struggled to end the rebellion.
Events such as this one contributed to the decision to...?
restructure the Federal Government
The Articles of Confederation allowed each state only one vote in Congress. Which question will be raised at the Constitutional Convention that deals with this?
Should more populous states receive greater representation?
"We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights." Declaration of Independence, July 4th, 1776
This excerpt refers to the rights that people....?
have as a result of being a human being!
In 1787, Congress awarded John Paul Jones the Congressional Gold Medal in honor of his "valor and brilliant services" during the Revolutionary War.
Which accomplishment was Congress recognizing?
Commanding a victory at sea against the British Navy.
Which statement best explains the significance of the Mayflower Compact?
it established a form of self government based on social contract
I will use the policy to containment with Stalin when he closes Berlin. I will use an airlift to bring supplies to those in trapped in Berlin
He was a U.S. banker and financier who was a leader in corporate finance and industrial mergers in the late 1800s and early 1900s.
How might FDR's personal background have prepared him to meet the challenges of the great depression?
How did the stain of Original Sin and "the doctrine of damnation" affect attitudes toward children in the colonial period? Why did those attitudes change after about 1800?
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