Which of the following statements regarding tectonics is true?
When continental plates collide with continental plates, both plates usually subside
Subduction is the process of a tectonic plate
Being forced below another plate
The "ring of fire" is the source of more earthquakes and volcanic activity than any other place on earth. What causes the ring of fire?
The subduction of Pacific plates under continental plates
A mineral is composed of
The basic material of rocks is a cohesive group of
One or more minerals
Rock formed from magma extruded to the surface through volcanic vents is classified as
Water, wind and glaciers are examples of forces that cause
The physical breakdown of a rock into smaller pieces is called
Metamorphic rocks are produced when rocks are
Recrystallized by heat and pressure
Under the 1872 U.S. General Mining Law, mining companies are required to pay what percentage of their profits in taxes?
No taxes are paid on mining profits
According to the 1872 General Mining Law, miners can stake claim anywhere on public land, but must pay __________ per acre to take the minerals they find.
Less than US $5.00
Reclamation of strip-mined land is difficult chiefly because
Topsoil is mixed up and buried so topsoil must take time to develop again for plants to grow
Smelting ore, as in Ducktown, Tennessee, releases toxic chemicals in the form of
Gases, from baked ore
It takes _______________ energy to recycle waste aluminum (e.g., beverage cans) compared to the energy of extracting new aluminum from bauxite.
About one-twentieth as much
On average, it takes ______________ energy to produce steel from scrap metal compared to the energy of producing steel from raw ore.
About half as much
In terms of mineral resources, recycling is ________ as raw materials become more _______ and ________ are more plentiful.
Slowly increasing; scarce; wastes
______________ can lead to mass wasting.
A. Clearcutting on steep slopes B. Building on the flood plain C. Building flood walls for flood control D. The overuse of our natural resources E. All of these are practices that can lead to mass wasting
Placer mining involves washing metals, minerals and the gemstones from streambeds with a water cannon.
Climate is a description of ________ weather conditions.
The two main gases making up the lower atmosphere are
Nitrogen and oxygen
Tiny particles and droplets suspended in the air
The "ozone hole" that causes concern among scientists and the public is an ozone depletion in the
Much of the ultraviolet light from the sun is absorbed by _______ as it passes through the atmosphere.
Albedo is a term describing the Earth's
Reflection of solar radiation
Which of the following would have the highest albedo?
The greenhouse effect in the atmosphere occurs because
A. Clouds reflect sunlight back into space B. Oceans absorb heat and then release it slowly at night C. Stratospheric ozone absorbs UV radiation D. CO2, water vapor, methanol and other gases absorb infrared radiation E. All of these are correct
The phenomenon causing the greenhouse effect is that ________ in the lower atmosphere selectively absorbs reradiated ________ radiation
Carbon dioxide, methane and other gases; infrared (heat)
Why don't storms over land have as much energy as storms over oceans?
Convection currents are intensified by the latent energy of condensation
Milankovitch cycles involve the periodic ___________ and could be responsible for ________ weather changes.
Wobbling of the earth's axis and orbital shifts; cyclic
When El Ni-o occurs every three to five years, a mass of warm Pacific water that is usually pushed westward by trade winds
Surges back eastward toward South America
Proponents of climate change say that given what we know about the probability of the greenhouse effect the best thing to do is
Severely cut back on production of greenhouse gases
Most of the excessive carbon dioxide that is expected to cause global warming is generated by green plants
Since biodiversity is usually higher in warmer, milder climates, biodiversity will probably be increased with global warming.
Primary pollutants are those that are
Released directly in dangerous forms
Become dangerous after reacting in the atmosphere
Fugitive emissions are produced by
Strip mining, rock crushing and other dust-producing activities
Criteria pollutants are those that
Contribute the most to air quality degradation
The brown haze in smog is caused by
The most dangerous airborne particulates are those
Small enough to be drawn into the lungs
Anthropogenic sources of carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere are
Increasing at the rate of about 0.5 percent per year
Many fish contain high levels of _____________ and should either not be eaten or their consumption should be limited.
Which of the following statements is true?
Most carbon monoxide produced in the United States comes from internal combustion engines (cars)
Ozone is produced by
Aesthetic degradation is a term that describes
Noises, odors and light pollution
Radon in houses comes from
Radioactive decay in the Earth below a house
Native peoples living in the Canadian Arctic have some of the highest recorded PCB concentrations in their bodies because of
Long-range transport of airborne pollutants
___________ ozone is harmful, damaging plants and human health while ozone at the _________ level screens out mutagenic ultraviolet radiation.
Pollutants such as chlorofluorocarbons deplete atmospheric ozone
When chlorine-containing molecules are oxidized at the expense of O3
The most common human health response to air pollution is
Inflammatory responses in sensitive tissues
Which of the following is the best example of synergistic effects?
The prevalence of cancer among smokers exposed to asbestos fibers
Worldwide, air pollution control efforts are least advanced or least successful in
Major cities of developing countries
Norilsk, Russia has been notable in recent years for its
Widespread and terrible pollution conditions
Human-produced pollutants are different from natural particulates and gases because they are almost always chemically more dangerous.
Synergistic effects occur when there is more damage of exposure when two factors are together.
Which of the following is not a factor in determining how much or how little precipitation a region receives?
Transpiration is the way plants
Absorb water from the atmosphere
Liquid water turning to vapor well below boiling temperature
The rainiest or snowiest zone on the mountain in the diagram would be in the area marked
From A to B
Air moving in the direction indicated in the diagram will become dryer as it moves from
B to D
Residence time of water in oceans is a measure of the
Average amount of time a water molecule spends in the ocean
The hydrologic compartment that contains the greatest amount of fresh water is
Ice and snow
Water enters groundwater by
The place where aquifers are most likely to be contaminated is at
The amount of water in aquifers in the United States is
Over thirty times greater than all surface water in the United States
The largest river in the world is the
Which of the following factors is the most important factor in determining whether a country is "water rich" or "water poor"?
Renewable water supplies
The United States has a drought cycle that brings dry periods about every ____ years
Technically speaking, when water is consumed it
Is no longer available for other purposes
Human water withdrawals have been increasing at about ___________ rate as worldwide population growth.
In general, water use worldwide is dominated by
The activity that uses the greatest share of U.S. household water is
Flushing the toilet
On the graph of domestic water use per person, each letter represents a country. Which of the following is most likely?
A is the United States; B is China
The Ogallala Aquifer supplies water to ___________ and once held more water than all of the surface water __________.
The central Plains states; in the world
Withdrawal of groundwater often causes subsidence, a situation where
Porous rocks settle and ground level falls
A method of increasing water supplies that has been successful, but expensive is
Many experts think that in the future, water conflicts will be a major cause of international conflict. Currently, however, there are no international conflicts over water.
Charging a higher proportion of real costs rather than subsidies has led to water conservation.
Which of the following would not help to improve water quality?
Keeping your car well maintained
_________ sources of water pollution are relatively easy to monitor and regulate while _____________ sources of water pollution are difficult to monitor and clean up.
The discharge from a nonpoint source of pollution is
Highly seasonal in quantity
____________ is to point source of water pollution as _____________ is to nonpoint source of water pollution.
Power plant effluent; golf course runoff
The water pollutant that most commonly threatens human health is
On the graph of clean drinking water per person, each letter represents a country. Which of the following is most likely?
A is the United States; B is India
When natural waters are overloaded with plant nutrients, such as nitrate and phosphate ions, they become
Cultural eutrophication results from
Tertiary treatment of sewage produces water that is typically used for
Dumping into freshwater systems
Dioxins, pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls are all types of
Toxic organic compounds
Best practical technology (BPT) is legally required for all
Point source polluters
In 1998, a change in the approach to water quality was initiated by _________ with an emphasis on _________.
The EPA; watershed management
Feedlots are a major cause of _________ in water.
A. Viruses B. Coliform bacteria C. Nitrates D. Phosphates E. All of these are correct
__________ should never be allowed down a drain when a septic tank and drain field system is being used for sewage disposal.