POSC Final - TAMU | Hyatt
Terms in this set (94)
The __ is believed to be responsible for the photo-refractory response in birds?
Which of the following breeds of poultry are native to the US?
Eastern Wild Turkey
What government program is responsible for saving the US wild turkey populations from extinction?
Trapping and relocation
How has vertical integration helped to make prices of poultry products affordable to the consumer?
Cutting out several middle men once involved with producing market poultry
Why have poultry geneticists selected for a meat bird with white plumage?
To produce a better looking dressed carcass with no pigment spots on the skin and missed pin feathers are not so obvious if they are white
Why is the technique of semen sorting utilized in some cattle breeding operations not a viable option for altering the sex ratio of offspring produced by female broiler breeders?
In birds, the female determines the sex of the offspring
How does the ability of the fresh hatched chick to retain yolk serve the industry?
to sustain the chick nutritionally for 3 to 5 days to allow shipping and placement hours if not days post hatch without providing feed
poultry industry geneticists are constantly breeding for broodiness in their breeder hens
Virtually 100% of all commercial turkey breeder hens...
are artificially inseminated
The __ quail has been domesticated by man for centuries and utilized for meat and egg production only and virtually never reared for release in the wild.
Natures purpose for evolution of the photo refractory response in all birds is to insure that:
reproduction is attempted only during the time of year when climate and food supply is optimum for maximum survival of offspring
The practice of force molting commercial layer flocks is controversial because:
it is considered cruel by many as the birds are deprived of feed for several days to initiate the molt
Mr. Essler indicated that the original mission of the NPIP program was to combat vertically transmitted diseases. This refers to diseases that:
transfer from breeders to their offspring
A unique aspect concerning the NPIP program is the fact that it involves federal government, state government, and industry participation to develop policies and guide lines.
Which ratite is unique compared to others, considering reproductive behavior, because it is the male rather than the female that exhibits a broodiness response.
What is nature's purpose for molting in many breeds of migratory birds?
To condition the flock for travel to seek out better feeding grounds and environmental conditions.
What aspect of broiler production generally falls outside of the company vertically integrated structure or is typically not owned by the company.
grandparent stick breeders
The term "Poultry" can be defined as:
Birds domesticated by man for production of meat, eggs, oil, or hide.
Which of the following practices may help to reduce cannibalism in market meat pheasant flocks?
- use of red lighting
- reduce bird density
- insure no nutritional deficiencies in feed
- beak trimming
The dual purpose chicken was utilized for commercial meat and egg production during the early to
mid-1900's but today is considered strictly a "back yard" flock type with no real value for commercial production.
Nipple drinker systems are typically utilized for rearing market broilers but not practical for use
with finishing market turkeys.
The practice of range rearing of market turkeys has declined over the years because they are now
genetically selected for white plumage which may result in hyperthermia in direct sun.
How does the crop, a dilation of the esophagus, play a part in the survival of the original wild chickens and turkeys?
provided a gland so feed can be consumed rapidly when the birds exposed to predators and digested over an extended length of time later under cover.
All market broilers are sexed at hatch but market turkeys are reared straight run.
Poultry industry geneticists are constantly genetically selecting against natures re-nesting instinct
in commercial broiler breeder hens.
The market broiler used today originates from a genetic cross developed during the mid-1900's ,
between the Dark Cornish and the White Plymouth Rock in an attempt to maximize breast meat
yield on a large frame.
What basic market strategy does the broiler industry and McDonalds have in common?
Consistency of product
The North American Mallard duck is sometimes referred to the " Long Island Duck" because the
first ones delivered to the U.S. from China, arrived in Long Island New York in the late 1980's.
The Bobwhite quail is also native to China and was introduced to the US in the late 1800's in an
attempt to establish wild populations. It was extremely successful and a hunting season opened
for them in just 11 years and an estimated 11,000 were harvested.
Of the 5 subspecies of wild turkeys in the U.S., the ____________________ is the most abundant.
Which of the following factors are important criteria to be considered by poultry integrators when considering a location for a new company production complex?
Adequate labor supply available
Which of the following diseases are vaccinated for in commercial hatcheries regardless of its
Which of the following practices aid in disease prevention?
a. Proper vaccination program
b. Effective bio-security policies
c. Obtain chicks from an NPIP certified hatchery
d. Always travel from young to old flocks on a poultry farm
What negative results can occur from indiscriminate medication practices?
b. Creation of adapted and mutated drug resistant strains of pathogenic organisms.
c. Can mask true nature of disease
d. Can destroy beneficial micro-flora
Eggs are candled prior to retail packaging to...
To inspect for interior quality and remove eggs with blood spots, meat spots, and cracks.
In order to be successful, virtually all poultry producers must have an effective coccidiosis
"Hysteria" is a behavioral disease that can affect any type of poultry but is most prevalent in:
Commercial caged layers
What disease of poultry is considered to be the deadliest worldwide?
Exotic New Castle
The purpose of brooder rings is mainly to:
To keep chicks and poults close to feed and water and eliminate drafts
Government regulations require that all shell eggs processed and packaged for consumer retail
sales be inspected on site during processing by a certified USDA/FSIS inspector.
___ directly relates to the freshness of an egg.
air cell size
Broilers are electrically stunned to provide a uniform heart beat for bleed-out prior to
Inspection for wholesomeness is mandatory and conducted by USDA FSIS.
Benefits of portioning include:
a. Adding value to the product
b. Improves processing efficiency
c. Allows maximum usage of the product
Guest speaker, Mr. John Holloway, mentioned that he was employed by Tyson Foods in Carthage Texas and held the position of:
FSIS processing line inspectors will allow up to 1 square inch of fecal material on a processed broiler carcass to qualify as a grade A carcass.
Any preparation of weakened or killed bacteria or viruses introduced into the body to prevent a disease by stimulating antibodies against it can be defined as a:
Anyone rearing turkeys in areas with a high infestation of mosquitos should consider vaccinating their flock for:
All commercial consumer egg producers force molt their flocks at approximately 95 weeks of age to insure maximum profitability of their operation.
Which of the following represent advantages for rearing replacement pullets in cages?
a. More density per house, multi-level cages
b. Reduced medication costs for soil borne pathogens, i.e. coccidiosis, black head, etc.
c. Eliminate environmental shock of moving from floor to wire.
d. Easy access to birds Vaccinate, weigh, etc.
Which of the following can result from photo stimulating pre-production pullets before they reach target weights, specified by rearing guidelines?
Predominance of prolapse or "blow-outs"
The purpose of stir fans in a commercial, tunnel ventilated broiler house is to:
to eliminate temperature differences from floor to ceiling and push heat to floor level when brooding
Strong ammonia odors in a poultry house is an indication of:
How are broiler breeder males and females fed different feed rations while coexisting in the
Screens are placed over female feeders that the male's bigger head will not fit through
Which of the three methods discussed in class is most commonly utilized to restrict feed commercial broiler breeders?
A good and sound poultry house environment will:
a. Keep the birds from experiencing temperature extremes (i.e. below 30° F or above 95° F).
b. Keep the birds / litter dry
c. Provide proper ventilation for the birds without exposing them to a direct draft.
d. Allow a proper lighting program for the birds to include artificial (supplemental) lighting
Guest speaker, Dr. Allan Byrd is a research scientist for:
U.S. Department of Agriculture Research Service
Brown shell consumer eggs have a higher nutritional value when compared to white shell eggs
Egg shell color in chickens is determined by:
Breed of the chicken
Market broilers are not fed 8 to 12 hours prior to slaughter to reduce the incidence of fecal
contamination of the product.
Which of the following represent ways to prevent disease in poultry flocks?
a. early diagnosis and treatment of disease
b. dispose of all dead birds by burning, deep burying or disposal pit
It is important that water is also withdrawn along with feed, 8 to 12 hours prior to slaughtering market broilers.
The purpose of the hammer mill is to:
Pulverize whole grains into small particle size
What are the two types of mixers utilized in commercial poultry feed mills?
Vertical and horizontal
Some level of disinfection of the feed mix is an advantage realized through steam conditioning mash
feed prior to pelleting.
Why is feeding pelleted feed to commercial meat production poultry so important?
To reduce feed waste and improve feed conversion
The ________________ stores bile that aids in the digestions of fats and lipids
Birds have a highly developed diaphragm which enables them to expand their lungs to almost three
time's normal size to compensate for high oxygen demand for flight.
The purpose of the crop in the digestive system of the chicken is to:
To moisten and store feed for metered release to the remainder of the digestive tract
Hatchability of hatching eggs can be effected by:
b. Breeder nutrition
c. Egg handling
d. Breeder genetics
The ____________ is part of the digestive system responsible for storing vitamins?
Criteria for selecting settable hatching eggs:
Relatively clean eggs of normal shape and size
Why is proper ventilation important when incubating eggs?
b. To provide oxygen to the embryo
c. To remove carbon dioxide
A symbiotic relationship between exothermic and endothermic embryos during the setting stage of
incubation is only realized in multi-stage stage setters.
Multi- stage setters require more energy, (electrical power), to operate when compared to single stage
Why are eggs transferred from the setter to the hatcher 3 days prior to hatch?
To isolate the eggs while hatching so other age embryos in the setter will not be contaminated
by hatch debris.
Typically, hatcheries that produce replacement pullets for laying hen operations do not utilize the
Embrex method of in-ovo vaccination. Why?
So vaccines are not wasted on cockerels euthanized at hatch
__________ is an example of a sex linked gene utilized for auto-sexing chickens
Which of the following hatcheries typically do not sex the hatchlings.
market meat broiler hatcheries
Currently, there are no known auto sexing, sex linked genes for breeder turkeys so the only method
available and utilized to sex turkey poults at the hatchery is vent sexing.
Why is it necessary to rotate or turn the eggs during the setting stage of incubation?
To keep the embryo in the geometric center of the egg.
What is the main advantage of a forced air incubator verses a still air incubator?
Eggs can be set multi-level to increase capacity and therefore take advantage of entire cabinet,
top to bottom
Feed formulated for laying hens may have supplemental pigmentation products added to insure
proper yolk color
The main purpose of the mixer in a feed milling system is:
Homogenize the nutrients in the final mash
The purpose of grit for wild turkeys is to provide abrasive materials to aid the gizzard with grinding
large feed materials.
Modern technology has virtually eliminated the need for trained nutritious employed by
major poultry companies.
Total Feed Consumed / Live Weight
$$$ / lbs
= $ per lb
WOG weight / live weight * 100
whatever part weight / WOG weight * 100
% settable eggs
100 - (culls / total * 100)
Hatch of Total
# of eggs that did not hatch / total set * 100
Hatch of Fertile
# of eggs that did not hatch / total set -infertile eggs
100 - (# infertile eggs / total set * 100)