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Chapter 10 (and parts of 7,8,9)
Terms in this set (29)
Compromise brokered by Henry Clay in Congress resolving the conflict of an imbalance in free/slave states in Congress. Determined that Missouri would join the nation as a slave state and Maine would be added as a free state. Further, that all states added thereafter (from the Louisiana Purchase) would either have slavery or not based on if they were south (have) or north (not have slavery) of the 36'30 latitude line.
Expansion fever sprung in America as they believed that American expansion westward to the Pacific was destined and ordained by god. Economic Crash in 1837 convinced people that they would have better luck starting fresh in the west. The abundance of land, for farming or selling (speculating) was thought to be a step towards prosperity.
Congress appropriated $30,000 to exploring and mapping the Oregon trail. Settlers used this route beginning in Independence Missouri through the Rocky Mountain to move westward and start a new life.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Ends war with Mexico, America pays 15 million to gain California, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, most of Arizona, and parts of Colorado and Wyoming. Increases the size of the US by ⅓ and allows for further expansion westward. (Sante Fe Trail)
Gold discovered by James Marshall at Sutter's Mill in 1848, the rush populates California, leading to Statehood, leading to the breaking of the Missouri Compromise and the tensions surrounding the Compromise of 1850.
Movement with the goal to abolish, or end, the institution of slavery and emancipation of all slaves. Believed that slavery was a moral and political wrong that could not exist in the US in any state.
began in Europe, came over the the United States in 1820s. The "revolution" itself refers to the change from hand and in-home production of goods to goods being produced by machines in factories.
Gibbons V Ogden
(1824)Established that the United States Federal Government has the power to regulate interstate trade (taxes and tariffs)
McCulloch v Maryland
(1819) established that States could not Tax a federal entity. Reasoned that the "power to tax is the power to destroy" by John Marshall, thus establishing the federal supremacy.
South Carolina attempts to succeed (leave, separate) from the Union in 1832 in protest to an excessively high federal tariff on imported goods.Vice President John C Calhoun was a supporter of this movement
Invented in 1793 by Eli Whitney as an efficient way to separate cotton and seeds. Helped slavery to remain constant, and even grow, and become fully entrenched in southern economy
Seneca Falls Convention
1848, led by Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton demanding rights for women. Upstate New York
Second Great Awakening
Religious movement led by Baptists and Methodists preachers beginning in 1790, gaining momentum in 1800, and reaching a peak in 1820s. Invigorates society to take an active role in the world around them
People who work for wages (as opposed to slavery)
stated that California and Utah/New Mexico Territories would never have slavery. Passed in House, vetoed in Senate
Compromise of 1850
-5 part law that added CA as a free state, and a harsh Fugitive Slave law.
Fugitive Slave Law 1850
Alleged fugitives were not entitled to trial by jury
Federal officials recieved a bribe to convict runaways
Fines of $1000 or 6 months in prison for assisting slaves.
Escaped slave, Conductor on the Underground railroad, saved over 300 slaves
Network of homes and people organized by "conductors" to help hide fugitives and ferry them to the next "station"
Uncle Tom's Cabin
1852 novel by Harriet Beecher Stowe, instant bestseller, leads to Northern protest against Fugitive slave law, and southerners felt their way of life was being attacked.
Kansas Nebraska Act
1854 Douglas introduced a bill to divide the Nebraska territory in 2, Repealing the MO Comp and establishing Pop. Sov.
citizens of a territory will vote on the matter of slavery before it is written into the state constitution
Boarder Ruffians come into Kansas and intimidate/attack the opposition and fighting erupts over the issue of slavery vote.
"The Sack of Lawrence"
Anti-Slavery today, pro-slavery police try to arrest all inhabitants, 800 armed men burn down the antislavery headquarters, destroy 2 newspapers printing presses, and looted many houses.
John Brown thought people were murdered in Lawrence and pulled 5 men from their beds in Pottawatomie Creek and decapitated them, Led to cries for revenge against anti-slavery forces.
Caning of Sumner
Preston Brooks (SC) attacks Charles Sumner (MA) in senate chambers with his cane in retaliation to Sumner's anti-slavery speech.
people who wanted to keep the western lands free of slavery and open to waged labor
emerged in the late 1850s as old national parties split apart over the issue of slavery.
northern Democrat, Great supporter of Popular Sovereignty, helped pass the Comp. of 1850, ran for president in 1860
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