Psych 305 Exam 3 Chapter 14 Mood Disorders and Schizophrenia
Terms in this set (68)
. As compared to non-depressed people, depressed individuals ____.
have fewer pleasant experiences
People with late-onset depression are more likely than other people to have relatives with which type of disorder
Which is true when considering the role of genetics in depression?
Adopted children who become depressed are more likely to have depressed biological relatives than depressed adoptive relatives
On average, those with the short form of the ____ transporter gene and a history of stressful experiences reported more than average symptoms of depression
. Most depressed people show ____ activity in the ____ prefrontal cortex.
Which symptoms are the most likely side effects of tricyclic antidepressants?
drowsiness and dry mouth
Which category of antidepressant drugs operates by blocking the transporter proteins that reabsorb serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine into the presynaptic neuron after their release?
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors operate similarly to ____.
. Which category of antidepressant drugs operates by blocking the enzyme that metabolizes catecholamines and serotonin into inactive forms?
In contrast to tricyclics, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) ____.
block the reuptake of only serotonin
One potentially dangerous side effect of St. John's wort is that it ____.
decreases the effectiveness of other medications the person may be taking
____ is a treatment for depression that electrically induces a seizure
Electroconvulsive shock therapy
The use of electroconvulsive shock declined in the 1950s because ____.
antidepressant drugs became available
. Electroconvulsive therapy is sometimes recommended for patients with strong suicidal tendencies because it ____.
produces its benefits faster
The most common side effect of electroconvulsive shock therapy is ____.
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation is similar to ECT in that ____.
both are effective in alleviating depression and no one knows why
In certain cases, it is possible to relieve depression by changing a person's ____.
Which of the following characterizes the total brain activity, as measured by the rate of glucose metabolism, in those suffering from mood disorders?
high in mania and low in depression
Bipolar I disorder and bipolar II disorder differ with regard to ____.
whether they include full-blown manic phases
Lithium is most commonly prescribed for which disorder
Physicians must carefully monitor the dose of lithium they give to bipolar patients because ____.
the most beneficial dosage is just less than the dosage that is toxic
What do the drugs valproate and carbamazepine share in common with lithium
They block the synthesis of arachidonic acid
Similar to depressed patients, bipolar patients may benefit from a change in their ____.
Which disorder is characterized by a deteriorating ability to function in everyday life and some combination of hallucinations, delusions, disorganized speech, and grossly disorganized behavior?
Which behavior is most suggestive of schizophrenia
deterioration of daily functioning with disorganized speech and behavior
____ was originally called dementia praecox
Dissociative identity disorder was previously known as ____.
multiple personality disorder
An example of a "negative symptom" of schizophrenia is ____.
poor emotional expression
A schizophrenic patient whose main symptoms are lack of emotional expression, lack of social interaction, and lack of speech is suffering from ____.
One of the main problems with schizophrenia is ____ that result from abnormal interactions between the cortex and the thalamus and cerebellum
What is the difference between positive and negative schizophrenic symptoms?
behaviors that are present versus behaviors that are absent
Hallucinations, delusions, and grossly disorganized behavior are classified as which kind of symptoms
A delusion is a(n) ____.
What Bleuler meant by schizophrenia was a split between ____ and ____ aspects of experience
Disorganized speech and grossly disorganized behavior represent the ____ in schizophrenia
a wide range of possible positive symptoms
What is the most common cognitive symptom of schizophrenia
impaired understanding of abstract concepts
A first diagnosis of schizophrenia is usually made for a male in which age range
. The concordance rate of schizophrenia among twins is ____.
higher in monozygotic than dizygotic twins
When an adopted child develops schizophrenia, the disease is significantly more probable among the ____.
biological relatives than the adopting relatives
One important factor to consider when making judgments about the relative influence of genetics on schizophrenia is the ____.
. Genetic studies of schizophrenia have found that ____.
there are probably several possible genes that increase a person's risk for schizophrenia
One gene of interest in schizophrenia is DISC1. This gene ____.
controls differentiation and migration of neurons in brain development
. Researchers have had trouble replicating studies that found a particular gene linked to schizophrenia. According to one recent hypothesis, ____.
spontaneous mutations in any of hundreds of genes can cause schizophrenia
Which of the following increases the probability that someone will develop schizophrenia?
having an older than average father
What is one factor in prenatal development that has been found to be related to increased incidences of schizophrenia later in life?
prenatal exposure to Toxoplasma gondii
Which factor is sometimes taken as evidence that schizophrenia might be caused by a virus?
the season-of-birth effect
Brain differences common to schizophrenia include ____.
larger than normal cerebral ventricles
The planum temporale is slightly ____ in the ____ temporal lobe of schizophrenics as compared to most other people
The areas with the most consistent signs of abnormality in schizophrenics include the ____.
dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
The problems that schizophrenics have with memory and attention are most likely related to an increased tendency of having brain damage in the ____.
People with schizophrenia have lower than normal overall activity in the ____
Research suggests that the brain abnormalities of schizophrenics develop ____.
early and then remain fairly steady
. Prior to the 1950s, few schizophrenic patients who entered a mental hospital ever left. The discovery most responsible for alleviating that situation was the discovery of ____.
Another term for antipsychotic drugs is ____.
The two chemical families to which most antipsychotic drugs belong are ____.
phenothiazines and butyrophenones
Which of the following is an effect of most antipsychotic drugs
blockage of dopamine receptors
. Repeated use of large doses of amphetamine or cocaine can lead to a behavioral condition similar to ____.
An individual shows symptoms resembling schizophrenia, especially the positive symptoms, but is not schizophrenic. Which of the following disorders is most likely?
substance-induced psychotic disorder
An alternative to the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia is the proposal that schizophrenia may be due to a deficiency of activity of ____ synapses.
Phencyclidine (PCP), which can produce psychotic symptoms resembling schizophrenia, has which effect?
It inhibits the NMDA glutamate receptors.
The amino acid, glycine, provides a possible co-treatment for schizophrenia because it ____.
increases the effectiveness of glutamate
. For schizophrenics, atypical antipsychotics are more effective than typical antipsychotics in ____.
reducing negative symptoms
A serious side effect that develops in some people after prolonged use of neuroleptic drugs is ____
The symptoms of tardive dyskinesia are ____.
tremors and other involuntary movements
What happens when schizophrenics stop taking neuroleptic drugs?
Tardive dyskinesia may continue
. Atypical antipsychotic drugs alleviate schizophrenia with fewer side effects than other drugs because they ____.
more strongly antagonize serotonin type 5-HT2 receptors
All things considered, the atypical antipsychotics ____.
do not improve overall quality of life more than older drugs
Which statement about the long-term course for people diagnosed with schizophrenia is true?
Up to one-fourth will have a serious disorder throughout their lives