185 terms

World History 1 SOL Review

Review for the World History 1 SOL Test
STUDY
PLAY
Five Themes of Geography
Movement, Location, Human-Environment Interaction, Place, Region
Lines of Longitude
run North to South; measure East to West; an example is the Prime Meridian
Lines of Latitude
run East to West; measure North to South; an example is the Equator
Australopithecus
first to walk on two legs
Homo Habilis
(man of skill) first to make stone tools
Homo Erectus
(upright man) first to use fire; create spoken language
Neanderthals
first to hunt in groups; care for the sick; have ritual burials
Homo Sapiens
(wise man) first to create many tools; cave art
Seven Continents
North America, South America, Europe, Asia, Australia, Antarctica, Africa
Four Oceans
Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Arctic Ocean
Nile River Valley
in Egypt; provided water, travel, protection, fertile soil
Nile River
in Egypt; flows North while the wind blows South allowing travel in both directions; floods predictable
Pharaoh
what the ruler of Egypt was called; worshipped as a god
Theocracy
Egyptian government; the leader is worshipped as a god
Polytheism
belief in more than one god; Egyptians, Sumerians, Chinese, Aryans, Hindus, Buddhists, Greeks, Romans
Egyptian Pyramids
burial tombs for pharaohs and their bodies were mummified
Hieroglyphics
Egyptian written language; each symbol represents and idea
Middle Eastern Civilizations
Sumer, Akkad, Babylon, Assyria, Phoenicians, Hebrews, Persians; located between Mediterranean Sea, Arabian Peninsula, Africa; centered around Tigris and Euphrates rivers; present day Iraq
Fertile Crescent
fertile soil; very good farmland; surrounding Tigris and Euphrates
Sumer
Middle Eastern Civilization; oldest civilization; city-states; used cuneiform
Cuneiform
first written language; each symbol represented an idea; triangular
Akkad
Sargon was ruler and created the first empire; conquered neighbors
Babylon
peak under rule of Hammurabi
Hammurabi's Code
first written law code created by Hammurabi; "an eye for an eye"; harsh
Hammurabi
ruler of Babylon; created Hammurabi's Code
Assyria
brutal warriors with sophisticated military; merciless conquerors; great builders
Phoenicians
shipbuilder, seafarers, traders; created first alphabet and each symbol resembles a sound; all over the Mediterranean Sea
Judaism
Abraham was founder; monotheistic; followed the 10 Commandments; Torah was their holy text; worshipped in temple/synagogue; still waiting for messiah; did not believe Jesus was Savior
Monotheism
belief in only one God; Jews, Christians, Muslims
10 Commandments
Moses received them from the top of a mountain from God; Christians and Jews followed them; laws of God
Persians
tolerant; bureaucracy; Cyrus the Great and Darius were the most famous rulers; Royal Road was their trade route and united empire; Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism
religion; fight of good and evil
Indus Vally
along Indus River; natural barriers protect it; strong central government; advanced city-planning and sewer system; little written records; caste system
Caste System
divided population by race and jobs
Mauryan Empire
along Ganges River; Asoka converts to Buddhism; tolerant
Asoka
ruler of Mauryan Empire who converted to Buddhism and put their beliefs on pillars throughout the empire
Gupta Empire
Golden Age of India; art, literature, and trade were important; mathematical inventions
Hinduism
polytheistic;1500 BCE; founded by Aryans; Upanishads and Vedas were sacred texts; caste system; four aims of life; dharma + karma = moksha
Dharma
job or place in caste system of a person
Karma
result of good and bad deeds in previous or current life
Moksha
released from reincarnation cycle because reached enlightenment
Reincarnation
rebirth until reach enlightenment
Enlightenment
perfect understanding of everything
Buddhism
500 BCE; India; founded by Siddhartha Gautama "Buddha"; Perfection of Wisdom Sutra is holy text; NO caste system; 4 Noble Truths + Eightfold Path = nirvana
Nirvana
release from reincarnation cycle by following 4 Noble Truths and Eightfold Path
Ancient China
centered around Huang He River; large population; isolated
Chinese Dynasties
Xia, Shang, Zhou, Qin, Han, Tang, Song
Xia
first Chinese Dynasty
Shang
first Chinese Dynasty to leave written records
Zhou
developed Mandate of Heaven; Warring States period
Qin
built Great Wall of China to keep out Mongols (Qin Shi Huangdi); Legalist
Han
height of Chinese civilizations; invented paper, silk, civil service; Confucian
Tang
expand borders; invented porcelain; part of Golden Age of China
Song
invented paper money, moveable type, magnetic compass; explorers; other part of Golden Age of China
Confucianism
founder was Confucius; respect elders; social order; education is important; humans are good
Daoism
founder was Laozi; harmony with nature; inner peace; yin and yang; Dao was universal force and guides everything
Legalism
founder unknown; respect of laws; harsh punishments; censorship; humans are bad
Kush
below Egypt; used Nile; used iron
Ghana, Mali, Songhai
used Niger River; Gold-Salt trade; Timbuktu was trade and cultural center; many converted to Islam
Aksum
used Red Sea; below Egypt; converted to Christianity under Ezana's rule
Zimbabwe
SE Africa; used Indian Ocean; gold trade; disappeared mysteriously
Minoans
lived on island of Crete; alphabet
Mycenaeans
took over Minoans; defeated Tojans in Trojan War
Dorians
defeated Mycenaeans; no advancements
Mt. Olympus
where Greek Gods lived
Gods
Zeus (Greek god of sky/storms), Hera (Greek goddess, Zeus' wife), Poseidon (Greek god of water), Athena (Greek goddess of war and intelligence), Mars (Roman god of agriculture and war), Aphrodite (Greek goddess of beauty and love)
Reasons for Trojan War
Trojan prince captured Helen of Troy; access to key trade point
Key Events of Trojan War
Troy was heavily fortified and protected by walls; Greeks trick Trojans by using giant wooden horse
Outcome of Trojan War
city of Troy destroyed; Greeks win war
Reasons for Persian War
Persians want to conquer Mediterranean; Persians seek revenge for Ionian Revolt
Key Events of Persian War
Battles of Marathon, Thermopylae, Salamis; Greeks won (they were outnumbered)
Outcome of Persian War
Athens becomes very powerful; Greek culture thrives and influences Western society
Peloponnesian War
Sparta and Athens become rivals and make different alliances
Delain League
alliances with Athens
Peloponnesian League
alliances with Sparta
Key Events of Peloponnesian War
Sparta surrounds Athens and plague spreads; Syracuse (ally of Sparta) defeat Athens in sea battle
Outcome of Peloponnesian War
Sparta wins but civil war weakens all of Greece; Democracy ends
Athens
M.A.T.D. (Monarchy, Aristocracy, Tyranny, Democracy); strong navy; trade based; artistic culture; women had less rights
Sparta
Oligarchy; strong army; agriculturally based; militaristic culture; women had more rights
Homer
epic poet; wrote "The Odyssey" and "The Iliad"
Aeshylus
wrote tragic plays
Sophocles
wrote tragic plays; "Oedipus" and "Antigone"
Horodotus
historian of Persian War
Thucydides
Historian of Peloponnesian War
Phidias
sculptor of Zeus, Athena, Parthenon
Archimedes
scientist/inventor; invented lever and the pulley
Hippocrates
Father of Medicine; created Hippocratic Oaht
Euclid
invented geometry
Pythagoras
mathematician; created Pythagorean Theorem
Socrates
philosopher; socratic method (questions); tutor of Plato
Plato
philosopher; founded the Academy; wrote the "Republic"; tutor of Aristotle
Aristotle
philosopher; tutor of Alexander the Great
Hellenistic Age
King Phillip II of Macedon conquered Greeks after Peloponnesian War; his son, Alexander the Great, expanded from Greece to India
Hellenistic Culture
combination of Greek, Egyptian, Persian, and Indian cultures
Alexander the Great
great military general; died mysteriously at 33; founded Alexandria in Egypt
Alexandria
learning, cultural, and trade center in Egypt; founded by Alexander the Great
Punic Wars
Rome vs. Carthage; fought over control of Mediterranean trade; series of three wars; Romans won; Carthage become province of Roman Empire
Rome
in Italy; strong army
Carthage
in Africa; strong navy (at first)
Roman Republic
500 BCE - 50 CE; small, Italian peninsula; representative democracy; Senate, Consuls, Assemblies, Tribunes; patricians and plebeians; income gap; 1/3 people lost land; inflation; civil war
Patricians
wealthy people of the Roman society
Plebeians
poor people of the Roman society
Tribunes
represented plebeians in government
Roman Empire
50 BCE - 476 CE; huge, all of Mediterranean Basin; absolute ruler; patricians and plebeians; army less loyal; civil wars; weak leaders; invasions
First Triumvirate
Julius Caesar, Pompey, Crassus
Julius Caesar
first dictator of Rome; assassinated by senators
Pompey
fought civil war with Caesar and lost
Crassus
influential politician
Second Triumvirate
Octavian (Augustus), Marc Antony, Lepidus
Octavian
first emperor of Rome; starts Pax Romana; grandnephew of Julius Caesar
Marc Antony
ally then rival of Octavian; married Egyptian Queen Cleopatra
Lepidus
weak politician
Virgil
poet; wrote "Aenid"
Scipio Africanus
general; defeated Hannibal in Punic Wars
Hannibal
powerful Carthaginian general; crossed Alps to invade Italy
Romance Languages
languages based off of Latin
Four Romance Languages
Spanish, Italian, French, Portuguese
Twelve Tables
written law code of Rome; "innocent until proven guilty"
Arches
strong way to build
Aqueducts
bridge-like structure that carried water from country to cities
Coliseum
Roman arena for gladiator fights, mock battles, and entertainment
Forum
meeting place for Romans
Roman Roads
Romans made over 50,000 miles of paved roads
Pantheon
temple for Roman gods
Constantinople
good trading area; easily protected; capital of Byzantine Empire; named by and after Constantine
Justinian
emperor; created Justinian's Code; fortified city; built Hagia Sophia
Justinian's Code
code of law; created by Justinian
Byzantine Empire
Greco-Roman culture; used icons and mosaics; Eastern Orthodox Church
Great Schism
split of Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox; couldn't agree on icons, role of pope, celibacy of priests
Russia
Kiev most powerful city-state; converted to Orthodox; was taught Cyrillic; taken over by Mongols
Islam
monotheistic; founder was Muhammad; in desert of Arabian Peninsula; worshipped in mosque; 5 Pillars of Faith; Asia, Africa, Europe; two types of Muslims: Sunni and Shi'te
Muhammad
last prophet; founder of Islam; had vision of Angel Gabriel
Koran
holy texts of Muslims
5 Pillars of Faith
Faith, Prayer, Alms, Fasting, Hajj
Shi'te
Ali party; leaders are blood related to Muhammad; minority of Muslims
Sunni
followers of Muhammad's example; leaders chosen; majority of Muslims
Dome of the Rock
mosque in Jerusalem; achitecture
Art of Islam
mosaics and calligraphy
Arabic
language used by Muslims
House of Wisdom
Islamic learning center in Baghdad
Islamic Math
created Algebra and Arabic numerals
Medieval Society
used Classic Roman culture; Christianity; Barbarian customs
Christianity
founded by Jesus; monotheistic; Bible was sacred text; followed 10 Commandments; worshipped in church; two types: Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox
Jesus
"Son of God"; "Savior"; founder of Christianity
Feudalism
kings provided protection; lords provided land and protection; serfs provided labor; Church was not as influential; vassal protected lord for land
Serf
bound to the land; laborer; lord provided housing
Lord
owner of land; gave it out to vassals for protection
Vassal
protected lord for land
Charlemagne
king of Franks; anointed Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo II; conquerer; united with Catholic Church to control Europe
Pope Leo II
pope; anointed Charlemagne Holy Roman Emperor
Crusades
fought by mainly Christians and Muslims over the sacred city of Jerusalem; Pope Urban II began it with speech; Crusader States were made; Constantinople sacked by Catholics; weakened Pope and nobles; end of feudalism; strengthened monarchy; stimulated trade between Europe and the Middle East; legacy of bitterness of Christians and Muslims
Jerusalem
sacred city to Jews, Christians, and Muslims; reason for Crusades
Pope Urban II
his speech began the Crusades
William the Conquerer
united England in 1066
King Henry II
introduced common law; king of England
Common Law
judicial rule established by what was previously done for that crime
King John
signed Magna Carta; king of England
Magna Carta
signed by King John; limited king's power
100 Years War
England vs. France; France won; Joan of Arc unified France and won it for them
Joan of Arc
unifying force of France; won 100 Years War for France; young peasant girl
Hugh Capet
starts Capetian Dynasty in Paris; French
Ferdinand and Isabella
king and queen of Spain; expel the Mongols
Philip II
king of Spain; expands empire int Americas
Ivan the Great
expels Mongols; Russian ruler
Russia
Orthodox Church unites them; centralized power of Tsar
Bubonic Plague
"Black Death"; spread by Mongols, rats, and fleas; killed 1/3 of Europe's population; lasted 3-4 years; decline of population; scarcity of labor; towns freed from feudalism; church influence declined; disruption of trade
Renaissance
"Rebirth"; begins in Italy; extra wealth allows patrons to pay artists; began Humanism; printing press invented
Humanism
focus on human accomplishments and potential
Printing Press
invented by Guttenberg; led to more literacy and spread of ideas
Guttenberg
inventor of printing press
Machiavelli
writer in Renaissance; wrote "The Prince" which is about absolute power for government
Da Vinci
artist in Renaissance; painted "The Mona Lisa" which is an individual woman; painted "The Last Supper" which is the last supper of Jesus and his apostles
Michelangelo
sculptor and artist in Renaissance; sculpted "David"; painted "Sistine Chapel" which is the ceiling of a church
Petrarch
poet in Renaissance; wrote sonnets mainly of love; "Father of Humanism"
Erasmus
humanist in Renaissance; wrote "Praise of Folly" which criticized the church
Sir Thomas More
writer in Renaissance; wrote "Utopia", a perfect society
Maya
Yucatan peninsula, Mexico; Chitzen Itza and Tikal were major cities; based on farming and trade; polytheistic with human sacrifice; slash and burn; built pyramids and temples; made calendars, written language, number system
Slash and Burn
farming technique; cut trees and then burned them to provide ash enriched soil
Aztec
central Mexico; Tenochtitlan was major city; all powerful emperor ruled; based on farming and trade; polytheistic with human sacrifice; chinampas; built pyramids and temples; made calendars; had strong warriors
Chinampas
floating gardens
Inca
Andes Mountains in South America; Machu Picchu and Cuzco were major cities; emperor with governors; based on farming and trade; polytheistic with human sacrifices; terraced farming; built complex road system; empire was huge and diverse
Terrace Farming
farming system in the form of steps going up the mountain
Trans-Saharan Trade Route
gold-salt trade; linked North and West Africa; across Sahara Desert; spread Islam; land trade
Silk Road
linked East and Central Asia; carried many goods: silk especially; spread Buddhism; land trade
Indian Ocean Trade Route
linked East Asia with Arabian Peninsula and Africa; traded gold, spices, and slaves; spread Islam and Buddhism; sea trade