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16 terms

Nature and Structure of viruses

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viruses
not cells, dependent on their cellular hosts, metabolically inert outside of a susceptible cell; "fluid poison"
Protomer
protein subunit that may be assembled into capsomeres
Capsomeres
morphological subunits from which the virus capsid is built
Capsid
the protein shell, or coat, that encloses the nucleic acid genome
Virion
the complete infective virus particle
Defective virus
a virus that cannot replicate because it lacks a full complement of viral genes; replication occurs in mixed infections with a helper virus
pseudotype
during replication in co-infected cells, the genome of one virus may become encapsidated in the heterolgous protein coat encoded by the second virus
pseudovirion
during viral replication, the capsid sometimes encloses the host nucleic acid rather than viral nucleic acid, such particles look like ordinary virus particles when observed by electron microscope, but do not replicate
episome
autonomous extra-chromosomal genetic element
Provirus
viral DNA that is integrated into host cell chromosome in a latent state and must be activated before it is transcribed, leading to production of progeny virions
penton
capsomeres located at the vertices of icosahedral virions
Poxvirus
the only complex DNA virus
Capsid
responsible for structural symmetry of the virus particle, protects, facilitates attachment, some contain enzymes which play roles in the infection process, also determines the antigenic characteristics of the virus
Retrovirus
only virus that has a diploid genome
Monopartite
the genome of all DNA viruses of vertebrates is ____________ (all viral genes contained in a single chromosome).
Enveloped
__________ viruses are more susceptible to environmental factors such as gastric acidity, dying and bile salts.