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not cells, dependent on their cellular hosts, metabolically inert outside of a susceptible cell; "fluid poison"


protein subunit that may be assembled into capsomeres


morphological subunits from which the virus capsid is built


the protein shell, or coat, that encloses the nucleic acid genome


the complete infective virus particle

Defective virus

a virus that cannot replicate because it lacks a full complement of viral genes; replication occurs in mixed infections with a helper virus


during replication in co-infected cells, the genome of one virus may become encapsidated in the heterolgous protein coat encoded by the second virus


during viral replication, the capsid sometimes encloses the host nucleic acid rather than viral nucleic acid, such particles look like ordinary virus particles when observed by electron microscope, but do not replicate


autonomous extra-chromosomal genetic element


viral DNA that is integrated into host cell chromosome in a latent state and must be activated before it is transcribed, leading to production of progeny virions


capsomeres located at the vertices of icosahedral virions


the only complex DNA virus


responsible for structural symmetry of the virus particle, protects, facilitates attachment, some contain enzymes which play roles in the infection process, also determines the antigenic characteristics of the virus


only virus that has a diploid genome


the genome of all DNA viruses of vertebrates is ____________ (all viral genes contained in a single chromosome).


__________ viruses are more susceptible to environmental factors such as gastric acidity, dying and bile salts.

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