CLEP: Western Civilization II - Chapter 2
Empires and Conflicts
Terms in this set (26)
An economic adviser to Louis XIV; he supported mercantilism and tried to make France economically self-sufficient. Brought prosperity to France.
West Indies, America, & India
3 Regions fought for by France and England
British East India Company
Government charted joint-stock company that controlled spice trade in the East Indies after the Dutch; began the work of colonizing India
Compagnie de Indes
French trading company; began the work of colonizing India
Taxes on imports or exports
Promoted English shipping and control colonial trade; made Americans ship all non-British items to England before going to America
War of Jenkins's Ear
(Started 1739) English captain Robert Jenkins had his ear cut off by a Spainard in the West Indies in 1731; this started this conflict between Britain & Spain.
War of Austrian Succession
(1740-1748) Prussian and Austria fought over Silesia and most of the rest of Europe took sides; this conflict was caused by the rival claims for the dominions of the Habsburg family. Before the death of Charles VI, Holy Roman emperor and archduke of Austria, many of the European powers had guaranteed that Charles's daughter Maria Theresa would succeed him.
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
(1748) This was the treaty that ended the War of Austrian Succession by giving the Prussians land, taking land away from Maria Theresa, but still allowing her to rule.
Diplomatic Revolution of 1756
During the Seven Years War, France and Austria (traditionally enemies) allied against Prussia, while Britain (traditionally allies) went against Russia in Support of Prussia.
(1738-1794) wrote Essay on Crimes and Punishments, theorized that prisons should be places of reform as well as of correction
(1742-1775) started mass revolt of serfs and peasants
Percy Bysshe Shelley
(1792-1822) Romantic Poet
(1768-1848) Romantic writer; opposed the anti-clericalism (opposes religious institutional power) of the French Revolution.
Convention of Westminster
(Britain and Prussia allied against France) - Britain and Prussia's alliance which they made hoping to scare off Russia and France from invading the German States.
Fredrick the Great
(Fredrick II) Prussian king of the 18th century; attempted to introduce Enlightenment reforms into Germany; built on military and bureaucratic foundations of his predecessors; introduced freedom of religion; increased state control of economy
Tsar Peter III
(was pro-Prussian) Russian ruler who made peace with Prussia allowing Frederick II to withstand French and Austrian forces.
(1780-1830) began in England
This political revolution began with the Declaration of Independence in 1776 where American colonists sought to balance the power between government and the people and protect the rights of citizens in a democracy.
Factors that contributed to IR in Britain
Resources: coal, iron, water; transportation systems; labor available; demands for manufactured goods; work ethic; good banking system, etc.
William Pitt the Elder
(1708-1778) As secretary of state in charge of the Seven Years' War, this British official sent tons of troops to confront the French in Canada. Proved instrumental in helping Great Britain emerge as a world power from the war.
Plains of Abraham
(1759) French defeat
(1757) French defeat in India
Treaty of Paris
(1763) Ended the Seven Years' War/French and Indian War
(1732-1799), the French Enlightenment playwright
and inventor and thinker who spent countless hours at the leading intellectual salons of France. Posing as the fictional firm "Rodrique, Hortalez, and Company" he funneled goods (large quantities of gunpowder, cannon, clothing, camping equipment, firearms, etc) to the Americans during the American revolution fighting against Britain. This French help was essential for the Revolution to succeed; France wanted to see their enemy Britain humbled.
Wrote: The Barber of Seville and The Marriage of Figaro
Seven Years' War
Known in America as French and Indian war. It was the war between the French and their Indian allies and the English that proved the English to be the more dominant force of what was to be the United States both commercially and in terms of controlled regions.