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Terms in this set (46)
A pre existing assumption about how the world is organized
Degree to which people interact with media. Social media has high salience.
The higher a media's social presence is, the more effective it can be by building confidence and offering active cues that help shape communication.
Goal is to negotiate a state of affairs to benefit organization and public. This is an example of a win-win Paradigm 2.
Goal is to synchronize public attitudes and behaviour to organizational wants. This is not a win-win situation and is Paradigm 1.
The more you use media the more it shapes how you think. People do not depend on all media equally, but choose what best suits their needs.
Social Learning Theory
Attempts to explains and predict behavior by looking at how another receiver processed information.
Source Credibility Theory
To be believe a source must demonstrate knowledge, trustworthiness and charisma.
Mass media is so powerful it shoots ideas into peoples mind. It assumes that people are passive and will accept the idea presented. A good example of this is War of the Worlds. It is no longer widely accepted.
Two-Step Flow Theory
Mass media affects opinion leaders and they affect the opinions of others. This is a two-step process.
Users and Gratification Theory
Assumes that people use media for their own reasons. Has 5 elements and there are 5 categories of need.
Agenda Setting Theory
How mass media chooses what we think about. The media tells us what issues are important. They don't affect reality, but filter and shape it.
Spiral of Silence Theory
People will not voice opinions if they think others disagree because they fear social isolation.
A person makes sense of a complex situation by interpreting new information based on what they already know. They use it to filter mass media.
Framing Tools Theory
Mass media frames ideas in ways that create attitudes. They do this by media framing; which uses deliberate language, visuals and associations with other stories. There are 7 framing tools total and one that are useful to PR professionals might me metaphors, stories or jargon.
Mass media shapes peoples social reality. Realities change how people think, feel and do.
Key individuals decide what the media reports. They decide what the public will see, hear or read. They have the choice to either open or close the gate.
If social media is used to its full potential, it will make PR more global, strategic, two-way, interactive, symmetrical or dialogical and socially responsible.
Developed by the IABC, this theory incorporates theory of publics, stakeholder theory and identifies PR as a management function.
Grunig's 4 Models of PR
Publicity - Accuracy and credibility not important
Public Information - One way, distributes organizational information
2-way asymmetrical - Does not receive feedback
2-way symmetrical - Promotes understanding and respect between organization and its publics
Dependency Theory - PR
PR practitioners can predict, based on research, what media specific publics will use and can then select media channels that will reach their specific audience.
Social Learning Theory - PR
Helps PR practitioners understand personal examples and how mass media can be important to receivers acquiring new behaviours.
Source Credibility Theory - PR
Vital for PR practitioners to know so we can use this theory to ensure we use the right platforms to deliver our message.
Bullet Theory - PR
Mass media is the most direct and powerful channel for PR practitioners to reach publics and must use right platforms to deliver messages.
Two-Step Flow Theory - PR
PR professionals choose opinion leaders as their messengers.
Users and Gratification Theory - PR
PR practitioners understand that people use media for their own reasons and expect to get something out of it. Therefore, they cater their messages to meet the users needs.
Agenda Setting Theory - PR
PR practitioners must pitch their messages to mass media efficiently to have them cover their story in a positive light. Therefore, messages have greater public believability and authority.
Spiral of Silence Theory - PR
PR professionals must encourage the adoption of unpopular positions but be aware that some may stay silent about their support. They must build community and be honest so that people feel comfortable talking about the issue at hand.
Schema Theory - PR
Essential that PR professionals shape messages based on what information is valuable to specific publics and help them grow new schemas.
Framing Tools Theory - PR
PR professionals must be aware of its importance in persuasion to help frame stories to have greater impact on publics. They must use media framing tools to create media materials such as news releases or backgrounders that speak their language.
Cultivation Theory - PR
PR professionals must expose public to consistent messages repeatedly over time.
Gate-Keeping Theory - PR
PR practitioners must identify and pitch to gatekeepers to ensure their story will be heard by publics. They can do this using the news value model, possibly pointing to frequency, conflict or references to elite persons. They must understand what stories sell.
Global Theory - PR
Helps PR practitioners promote two-way communication which develops better relationships with their publics.
Excellence Theory - PR
To maximize value of public relations, PR practitioners should use 4 models of public relations. An example would be creating a publics or stakeholders map.
Distributes organizational informations such as press releases. Is one way.
More focused on getting information out there, accuracy and credibility not important.
Promotes understanding and respect between organization and publics.
Does not ask or receive feedback.
News Value Model - Examples
Frequency, conflict, reference to elite persons
7 Framing Tools - Examples
Metaphors, jaron, stories, artifacts
Deliberate language, visuals, association with other stories
Example of Dependency Theory
Political junkies, natural disasters
Example of Bullet Theory
War of the Worlds
Example of Agenda Setting Theory
Lifestyle trends, celebrities to admire
Example of Spiral of Silence
Example of Gate-Keeping Theory
Understanding news pegs, bad news sells
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