were the opponets of the Stalwarts and a branch of the U.S. Republican party; pushed for civil service reform and the merit system (1880)
A political party formed in 1891 mostly by farmers & members of labor unions who demanded government help with falling farm prices, regulation of railroad rates, and the free coinage of silver (more money to be put in circulation)
Grand Army of the Republic (GAR)
a social and political lobbying organization of the northern Civil War veterans, often "waved the bloody shirt"; pushed for pensions
Sherman Silver Purchase Act (1890)
While not authorizing the free and unlimited coinage of silver that the silverites wanted, it increased the amount of silver the government had to purchase every month. It required the Treasury to buy the silver with notes that could be redeemed for either silver or gold. Failed
1893 ; Grover Cleavland
When was the Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890 repealed and by which president?
The Pendelton Civil Service Act (1881)
eliminated the Spoils system; set up a commison to prepare competivtive examinations and establish standards of merit for a variety of federal jobs; also forbade spoils system
A group of renegade Republicans who supported 1884 Democratic presidential nominee Grover Cleveland instead of their party's nominee, James G. Blaine.
McKinley Tariff (1890)
set the average ad valorem tariff rate for imports to the United States at 50%, and protected agriculture. Its chief proponent was Congressman and future President McKinley. In return for its passage, the Sherman Silver Purchase Act was given Republican support
The Grange Movement
A group of agrarian organizations that worked to increase the political and economic power of farmers. They opposed corrupt business practices and monopolies, and supported relief for debtors.
formally named "Patrons of Husbandry" formed by Oliver H. Kelly this organization offered information, comradery and emotinal support to farmers; its primary focous was to help farmers become more self sufficent
Munn V. Ilinois (1877)
Case that upheld legislation proposed by the National Grange to regulate grain elevator rates, declaring that business interests (private property) used for public good be regulated by government.
Farmer's Alliance Movement
formed by Charles W. Macune; this movement saught to end the effects of the crop lien system and help make farmers more self sufficent
called for the direct popular election of senators and other electoral reforms. Endorsed a plan in which farmers could store nonperishable items in government warehouses, recieve interest loans while using crops as colladeral and sell stored crops when market prices rose
Term given to southern white elites that were restored to power after the end of reconstruction in 1877
Convict lease system
system by which cotton planters, railroad builders, and coal minets were leased prison gangs and forced them to work under horrible conditions; Was a way to expolit black prisoners
Civil Rights Cases (1883)
in these decisons the court delcared the Civil Rights Act of 1875 unconstitutional and stated that the 14th ammendment protected citizens from violations of thir civil rights not from violations by private citizens (ie Railroad Conductors)
Plessy V. Ferguson (1896)
declared that separate but equal doctrine created. Race-based segregation is constitutional
Proposed solution to unemployment "legal tender"; was a $500 million public works program funded with paper money and not backed by gold (like $ today) ; organizaed marches in Washington to lobby for cause
Wilson Gorman Tariff (1894)
form of income tax that taxed 2% on all income over $4,000; declared unconstitutional in Pollack V. Farmers Loan & Trust Co.
Pollack V. Farmers Loan & Trust Co. (1895)
declared WIlson-Gorman Tariff unconstitutional; ruled that the federal governement could only impose tax on private property only if it were done so according to population of each state