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CLEP: Western Civilization II - Chapter 5
The French Revolution and Napoleonic Europe
Terms in this set (48)
War of Austrian Succession
(1740-1748) (Prussia and France ---> against Austria)
Conflict caused by the rival claims for the dominions of the Hapsburg family. Before the death of Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor and Archduke of Austria, many of the European powers had guaranteed that Charles's daughter Maria Theresa would succeed him. This war was a series of wars in which various European nations competed for power in Central Europe after the death of Hapsburg emperor Charles VI. Prussia's Frederick II seized Silesia, violating Pragmatic Sanction, and it grew into a huge war with Austria gaining allies from all over the place. Led to Seven Years' War.
3 Classes of people: First Estate (clergy), Second Estate (nobles), and Third Estate (middle class/bourgeoisie/etc.)
These people were the Third Estates professionals such as: doctors, lawyers, bankers, etc.
Abbe Emmanuel Sieyes
(1748-1836) Published pamphlet "What is the Third Estate?" in defense of the lower classes (1789)
Seven Years' War
(1756-1763) Global war with Britain (- French and Indian War)
- King of France (1774-1792). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. He and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.
Assembly of Notables
Louis XVI called these people to ask for money and the wealthy refused. The nobles refused to pay taxes. This group was made up of people selected by the king and was made up primarily of nobles.
Cahiers de doleances
Honore Gabriel Riquetti comte de Mirabeau
(1749-1791) Helped lead first act of Revolution
What did the Third Estate rename itself?
Tennis Court Oath
June 20th 1789 - This document was formed by the National Assembly when they were locked out of their normal meeting hall by King Louis XVI.
Raiding of the Bastille
By Paris citizens, July 14th 1789
The panic and insecurity that struck French peasants in the summer of 1789 (after the Raiding of the Bastille); led to widespread destruction of manor houses and archives, etc.
What did the National Assembly put out of existence?
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
(1789) This was the new constitution that the National Assembly wrote that gave all citizens free expression of thoughts and opinions and guaranteed equality before the law
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
A document, issued by the National Assembly in July 1790, that broke ties with the Catholic Church and established a national church system in France with a process for the election of regional bishops. The document angered the pope and church officials and turned many French Catholics against the revolutionaries.
form of government in which the monarch's powers are limited by a constitution
Dates for French Revolution?
Olympe de Gouges
(1748-1793) Published "Declaration of the Rights of Women and Female Citizen", french journalist who demanded equal rights for women.
(r. 1790-1792) Austrian Emperor; French King Louis XVI wanted to gain support from this man
Friedrich Wilhelm II
(1786-1797) Prussian King. ~ Declaration of Pillnitz, protection of Prussian people
Georges Jacques Danton
(1759-1794) French revolutionary leader who stormed the Paris Bastille and who supported the execution of Louis XVI but was guillotined by Robespierre for his opposition to the Reign of Terror; he worked with Jean Paul Marat, responded with declaration of war towards King Friedrich Wilhelm's II "Declaration of Pillnitz"/protection of Russian people. He was part of the Jacobin Club.
Jean Paul Marat
(1743-1793) Radical, worked with Georges Jacques Danton, responded with declaration of war towards King Friedrich Wilhelm's II "Declaration of Pillnitz"/protection of Russian people. Part of the Jacobin Club.
What did the National Assembly (originally the Third Estate) rename itself?
Small government in Paris who wanted to resist the conservative leaders of France and tried to form their own government; their leader was Danton. Many members were called "sans-culottes" (people without fine clothing).
What did the Legislative Assembly rename itself? (they ended France's monarchy)
Representing the country-side; favored federal system
Representing Paris; favored centralized government and elimination of the monarchy
region in France; revolted against National Convention Authority
Committee of Public Safety
Established and led by Robespierre (and Danton), fixed bread prices and nationalized some businesses. Basically secret police; also controlled the war effort. Instigated the Reign of Terror.
(1758-1794) Leading figure of the French Revolution; he was known for his intense dedication to the Revolution. He became increasingly radical and lead the National Convention during its most bloodthirsty time; instituted Cult of the Supreme Being; his execution ended the Reign of Terror.
Reign of Terror
(1793-1794) Robespierre was a key leader of this bloody movement which put to death anyone believed to be against the revolution; some 25,000-50,000 killed.
Danton executed at guillotine, ordered by Robespierre
Robespierre himself executed
Time period after the French Revolution
New National Constitution
(1795) by the National Convention; overseen by the Directory (5 men)
In France, the political right were called royalists; what were the political left?
(1769-1821) French general; "First Consul"; he abolished the Directory; 1806 - he abolished the unpopular anti-Christian calendar, etc.
(1804) This code abolished primogeniture
London Corresponding Society
This society kept up with revolutionary thought
Society of United Irishmen
Anti-British; appreciated French revolution
What country was eliminated from the map 1793-1795, and emerged again after WWI?
Lord Horatio Nelson
(1758-1805) British admiral who led Britain to many important victories over the French. He crushed the French in Egypt at Abukir and destroyed French and Spanish fleets at the Battle of Trafalgar, where he died in battle.
Treaty of Tilsit
(1807) Agreement between Napoleon and Czar Alexander I in which Russia became an ally of France and Napoleon took over the lands of Prussia west of the Elbe as well as the Polish provinces.
Napoleon's Continental System
Effort to hurt British economically; forbidden to trade with Britain
Contract with the Roman Catholic Church 1801; allowed Catholic church to be the major religion for France
Issued by Napoleon stating that neutral ships trading with Britain or obeying the Orders in Council could be seized; Napoleon didn't want any of his allies importing British goods
England & America
French Enlightened philosophies admired the governments of which two countries most?