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50 terms

Beth Anderson's Extra Credit due 1/22/10 on the digestive system

Beth Anderson's Extra Credit due on 1/22/10 on the digestive system
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gastroenterology
the medical professions that study the structures, functions, and disorders of the digestive tract for the upper end are called what?
proctology
the medical professions that study the structures, functions, and disorders of the digestive tract for the lower end are called what?
gastrointestinal tract, accessory digestive organs
what are the 2 groups of organs called that compose the digestive system
alimentary canal
another name for gastrointestinal tract
gastrointestinal tract
what organ group is composed of the mouth, most of the pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine
accesory digestive organs
what organ group consists of the teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas
ingestion
what basic process includes taking food into the mouth (eating)
secretion
what basic process includes the release of water, acid, buffers, and enzymes into the lumen of the tract
digestion
what basic process refers to the mechanical and chemical breakdown of foods so that the cells can absorb the nutrients
mixing and propulsion
what basic process results from the alternating contraction and relaxation of the smooth muscles
chemical, mechanical
list 2 kinds of digestion
mechanical
what type of digestion refers to the movements of the GI tract
chemical
what type of digestion consists of a series of catabolic (hydrolysis) reactions
absorption
what basic process consists of the passage of end products into blood or lymph for distribution to cells
defecation
what basic process consists of the elimination of feces
9 meters (30 feet)
how long is the alimentary canal
ventral
which cavity does the alimentary canal pass through
lumen
passageway of the digestive tube
mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, serosa
list the 4 layers of the GI tract wall (deep to superficial)
mucosa
what is the inner lining of the GI tract called
protection, secretion, absorption
what is the function of mucosa
mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue
what does MALT stand for
muscularis mucosae
thin layer of smooth muscle making folds to increase surface area
submucosa
what is made up of loose CT housing BV, LV, and nerves
muscularis
voluntary skeletal muscle found in mouth, pharynx, upper 2/3 of esophagus, and anal sphincter, involuntary smooth muscle is found everywhere else
involuntary muscularis
what is arranged in inner circular fibers and outer longitudinal fibers
myenteric plexus
what is between muscle layers in involuntary muscularis
serosa
outermost covering of organs suspended in abdominopelvic cavity
adventitia
what does the esophagus have if it lacks serosa
intestines
what does the enteric refer to in the enteric nervous system
intrinsic
what are the set of nerves in the enteric nervous system called
myenteric plexus, submucosal plexus
list the 2 plexuses of the enteric nervous system
myenteric plexus
what plexus is responsible for GI tract motility
submucosal plexus
what plexus controls secretions
extrinsic
what set of nerves does the autonomic nervous system have
parasympathetic
what stimulation increases secretion and activity by stimulating ENS
sympathetic
what stimulation decreases secretions and activity by inhibiting ENS
peritoneum
what is the largest serous membrane of the body
parietal peritoneum
what peritoneum lines the walls of the cavity
visceral peritoneum
what peritoneum covers some organs
peritoneal cavity
what is the space between the peritoneum called
greater omentum, lesser omentum, falciform ligament, mesentery, mesocolon
list the 5 major peritoneal folds
support organs, contain BV, LV, and nerves of abdominal organs
function of peritoneal folds
retroperitoneal
what is it called when organs lie behind the peritoneum (posterior abdominal wall)
mouth, oral cavity, buccal cavity
formed by cheeks, hard and soft palate, lips and tongue
mastication
what is another name for chewing
vestibule
area between cheeks
lips and cheeks
contains buccinator muscle that keeps food between upper and lower teeth
oral cavity proper
space that extends from gums and teeth to fauces
fauces
what is the opening between oral cavity and oropharynx