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Psychology 360 Final
Terms in this set (45)
a hostile or negative attitude toward a distinguishable group of people, based solely on their membership in that group; the affective component
A generalization about a group of people, in which certain traits are assigned to virtually all members of the group, regardless of actual variation among the members ; cognitive component
unjustified negative or harmful action toward a member of a group solely because of his/her membership in that group
treating someone behaviorally different because of their membership to a group; behavioral component
How are prejudice, stereotype, and discrimination related?
They are related because you are treating someone differently because they are in a different group of people. Discrimination and prejudice are related as they both deal with negative feelings towards groups of people.
The way I see it is you have prejudices based on stereotypes and discrimination is acting on the prejudice.
Who are the victims and perpetrators of prejudice?
Prejudice is a two-way street; it often flows from the minority group to the majority group as well as in the other direction. (p.362)
What are two basic cognitive processes by which stereotypes form that were discussed in class?
1. Automatic processing: occurs when appropriate stimulus is encountered -- either a member of a stereotyped group or contact with a stereotypical statement -- causing the stereotypes for that group to be accessed from memory. Automatic processing occurs without your awareness. You don't purposely think these thoughts; they just "happen" -- triggered by the stimulus.
2. Controlled processing: occurs with your awareness -- as when you choose to ignore or disregard the stereotyped information that has been brought to mind
(There is a two step model to cognitively process stereotypes (p. 372 has a picture))
What basic cognitive process is minimal group research based on? What does this research demonstrate?
Social categorization processes: grouping things into meaningful categories based on certain characteristics (basic cognitive process minimal group research is based on this)
-Thinking in terms of "us" and "them"
-Grouping objects into meaningful categories
What it demonstrates:***
In-group bias - positive feeling and special treatment for people we have defined as being part of our in-group and negative feelings and unfair treatment toward those we've defined as our out-group.
Out-group homogeneity - the perception that individuals in the out-group are more similar to each other (homogeneity) than they really are, as well as more similar than members of the in-group are.
What is "realistic conflict," and how does it lead to prejudice?
Realistic conflict: hostility between groups is caused by direct competition for limited resources
How it leads to prejudice:
-Whatever problems result from the in-group vs. out-group phenomenon are magnified by real economic, political, or status competition
-Leading to prejudice could have to do with the idea of liking your group and associating your group with positive feelings and then feeling negative/weary about people who are outside of your group, especially when you are competing with that group for resources
What is the out-group homogeneity effect? Explain the two reasons it occurs that were discussed in class.
perception that out group members are more similar to each other than they really are, "they're all alike"
2. Ultimate attribution error (maybe) - the tendency to make dispositional attributions (meaning their behavior is due mostly to their personality instead of their situation) about an entire group of people.
Describe an example in your own life where you fell prey to the out-group homogeneity effect.
Example: UTK vs. Alabama maybe?
This is a good example. Say we think all Bama fans are loud and rude but we think Vols fans aren't all similar, there are good fans and bad fans. The main point is that we perceive the out-group (Bama fans) as all alike and more alike than Vols fans are.
We discussed four ways in which stereotypes self-perpetuate.
Information processing, confirmation biases, self-fulfilling prophecies, attributions
1. Encoding - consistent vs. inconsistent information (seeking out consistent information about stereotypes and ignoring inconsistent information about stereotypes)
-Filling in the gaps or making assumptions to fit pre-existing ideas
2. Sub-typing (ex. "career women"/gender roles)
-Special occasion or creating sub categories under original stereotypes to make something "fit"; creates exceptions rather than changing belief
3. Interpreting ambiguous information
-In unsure (ambiguous) situations, we look for the easy way to categorize information to make the situation "make sense" so we can make choices
The tendency to count stereotype consistent information, and ignore inconsistent information
We look for ways we are right and ignore anything that can prove us wrong
if you have ideas/stereotypes about someone that you don't like, then you will treat them badly and then they will treat you badly in return which will confirm your original stereotypes and biases
Ultimate attribution error:
Positive in-group behaviors are internally attributed
-We we and our group do something "good", it is because we (ourselves) are good.
Positive out-group behaviors externally attributed
-When others outside of our group do something "good", it is because they "must" have an alternative motive or there is an "external" cause for that behavior...
What is the "dissociation model" of stereotyping? Describe the two-step process involved in this model of prejudice, and describe what separates prejudiced from non-prejudiced individuals according to the model.
Devine's Dissociation Model of Prejudice: prejudice is learned early, everyone shows automatic activation of stereotypes. "Prejudiced" people let stereotypes influence their behavior whereas "Non-Prejudiced" people prevent discrimination through controlled processes.
I think the two step process is 1. Having prejudices about certain people and then 2. Acting on those stereotypes and that's what makes you prejudice.
What does it mean to say that prejudice is inevitable? Describe two situations when automatic prejudice/stereotype activation does NOT happen?
Prejudice is a natural byproduct of a limited information processing system.
What are the differences between old-fashioned and modern racism?
Old-fashioned racism: socially accepted, blatant, relatively rare
Modern racism: outwardly unprejudiced, inwardly prejudiced
What is "symbolic racism," and how does it relate to political attitudes?
-Certain political issues become symbolic playing fields for racial prejudice
-Opposition to affirmative action, integration of public schools, and Obamacare
ex.) school zoning
Symbolic Racism Scale:
-"Discrimination against Blacks is no longer a problem in the US"
-"Over the past few years, Blacks have gotten more economically than they deserve."
- "Blacks have more influence on upon school desegregation than they ought to have
-Blacks should not push themselves where they are not wanted
Define automatic prejudice, and describe one way to measure whether or not someone is prejudiced at the automatic level. What kinds of effects does automatic prejudice have?
Automatic prejudice: natural byproduct of a limited information processing system
-Roughly 60% of Whites appear prejudiced on priming measures
-So prejudice is not "inevitable" for some
Dissociation model of prejudice: (Devine, '89)
Prejudice learned early
Everyone shows automatic activation of stereotypes
"Prejudiced" people let stereotypes influence behavior
"Non-prejudiced" people prevent discrimination through controlled processes.
Implicit Measures of Attitudes - do not require direct responses
ex.) priming, the IAT
What is the contact hypothesis? What are the necessary conditions for the contact hypothesis to work? (6) Based on these conditions, do you think contact is a viable means of reducing prejudice?
Contact hypothesis refers to the belief that prejudices can be lessened or eliminated by direct contact between groups. From this hypothesis, there is a chance that prejudice can be reduced since individuals who vary can come together and somewhat see an understanding of each other.
mutual interdependence, having a common goal, equal status, friendly/informal setting, multiple members of the out-group, social norms that promote equality
6 conditions necessary for the contact hypothesis to work?
1. mutual interdependence-the need to depend on one another to accomplish a goal that is important to both sides
2. having a common goal-Both groups must work on a problem/task and share this as a common goal, sometimes called a superordinate goal, a goal that can only be attained if the members of two or more groups work together by pooling their efforts and resources.
3. equal status-when status is unequal, interactions can easily follow stereotypical patterns so it is important for the status to be equal.
4. friendly, informal setting-where in-group members can interact with out-group members on a one-to-one basis.
5. multiple members of the out-group-The fifth condition is that the individual learns that the out-group members he or she comes to know in that informal setting are typical of their group. So, there must be multiple members of the out-group present, otherwise the stereotype can be maintained by labeling one out-group member as the outstanding exception.
6. social norms that promote equality-social norms wield great power and can be harnessed to motivate people to reach out to members of the out-group. For example, if the boss or professor creates and reinforces a norm of acceptance and tolerance at work or in the classroom, group members will change their behavior to fit the norm.
Describe Sherif's (1961) summer camp experiment. What was learned about conflict and contact from it?
When individuals having no established relationships are brought together to interact in group activities with common goals, they produce a group structure with hierarchical statuses and roles within it.
If two in-groups thus formed are brought into a functional relationship under conditions of competition and group frustration, attitudes and appropriate hostile actions in relation to the out-group and its members will arise and will be standardized and shared in varying degrees by group members.
Eagles vs Rattlers, boys who were similar in religion, and ethnicity brought together for camp, and were split into groups. Soon after it was seen that they would begin to compete against each other, and the boys who were the most "dangerous" soon became the most popular in the groups. Took each others flags and burnt them, but the psychologist onsite soon after made it to where they would be forced to come together by cutting off water supply etc. Soon after they surely did, because they put them in situations where teamwork was needed so they became dependent of each other as whole.
What is the "jigsaw classroom," and how is it thought to reduce prejudice?
a classroom setting designed to reduce prejudice and raise the self-esteem of children by placing them in small, desegregated groups and making each child dependent on the other children in the group to learn the course material and do well in the class.
Why it works: the process of participating in a cooperative group breaks down in-group versus out-group perceptions and allows the individual to develop the cognitive category of "oneness" where no one is excluded from group membership. Also, the process of working cooperatively encourages the development of empathy
-The jigsaw technique is a method of organizing classroom activity that makes students dependent on each other to succeed. It breaks classes into groups and breaks assignments into pieces that the group assembles to complete the (jigsaw) puzzle.By doing this, students will need each other to perform task throught their classes, thus they will learn to work together no matter their differences. I believe that we gain prejudice by not working with others who are not similar to us since throughout life we have preferred to be around individuals who are similar in skin tone/ social rank. So this would reduce prejudice because we are going outside our comfort zones at such a young age in a setting where we are supposed to learn.
What is stereotype threat? How is it thought to happen, and who is susceptible?
Stereotype Threat: the apprehension experienced by members of a group that their behavior might confirm a cultural stereotype.
It is thought to happen when people are worried about confirming the stereotype they are associated with which causes them more anxiety and often causes them to perform worse. For example, and African American student is worried that if they do not perform well on the test, it will reflect poorly on them and their race. This extra burden interferes with their ability to perform well on the test.
Stereotype threat is a situational predicament in which people are or feel themselves to be at risk of conforming to stereotypes about their social group. Anyone is susceptible to falling into this threat, and happens when one is put into a situation and gains anxiety from it.
Has racism declined over the years? Explain your reasoning.
If going by the Devine association model of prejudice, then maybe racism has not exactly declined but has become hidden? Like prejudices still exist but they are no longer socially acceptable so people are externally unprejudiced but internally prejudiced.
Social psychology tends to focus on the power of the situation over that of the individual. Describe three domains where social forces trump individual personalities in determining social behavior.
Priming, social influence, group processes
media is constantly priming us which can make us see the world differently than it really is (we think the world is more dangerous now when crime rates have actually gone down)
obedience (doing what you're told because an authority figure told you to) the take home of the Milgram experiment is the fact that people said no one would ever shock another person when asked to, however the results showed that the vast majority of people did actually shock the other person so people don't think they are susceptible to behavior when they really are (underestimate how impacted we are by authority figures). Normative influence (going along with a group even when the group is wrong). Informational influence (going along with a group when we think the group is right) Attitude change (central route processing vs. peripheral route processing)
subject to errors in group decision making (jail experiment shows how roles can be super powerful), group decision making can be bad (groupthink: group cohesiveness is more important than facts), Deindividuation (loss of self-awareness in groups), social learning (learning things like attitudes through observation), the experiences in your past and observing other people like peers and parents leads to changes in attitudes
"Fundamental motives" were mentioned several times throughout the semester. Summarize three of these motives, and provide examples of each in action. What other fundamental motives might there be in your opinion?
1. Accuracy: people like to be accurate perceivers of the social world, but there are lots of ways in which we are inaccurate (our beliefs and perceptions). In action: the confirmation bias where we seek out information that agrees with our beliefs but ignore information that discredits our beliefs.
2. Self-Esteem: we like to feel good about ourselves
3. Consistency: cognitive dissonance, when our behavior determines our attitudes, when we behave in a way that is sort of hypocritical that causes an unpleasant feeling of dissonance, we don't like this so we try to avoid cognitive dissonance by either changing our beliefs, changing our behavior, or adding new cognitions.
4. Belongingness/Connectedness: people have a fundamental need to feel like they belong, best predictor of well being across the lifespan is the quality of your relationships
What do schemas do for us (that is, what are their functions)? Provide two examples of schemas from two different domains in social psychology, identify what kind of schema each is, and how it's come in handy for you.
Schemas-provided from life experiences/situations and informs us about what to expect
1. Person Schemas: contain info about the characteristics of people, organized around "types"/ clusters of traits (stereotypes)
2. Self Schemas: contain info about the self, dominated by "central" traits, guide processing of self-relevant info, affect perceptions of others ("I'm smarter than that guy!")
3. Role Schemas: contain info on how to act in certain roles (student, professor, doctor, patient)
4. Event Schemas: contain info on the sequence of events in a given situation, order is important
How do schemas fail?
Perseverance Effect: schemas persist even after they're discredited
Self-fulfilling Prophecy: Expectation about X. Expectation affects your behavior towards X. Your behavior forces X to confirm your expectation
Describe the steps involved in a self-fulfilling prophecy, and explain how it applies to two social psychological phenomena that were covered this semester.
1. Perceiver has expectations about how target will behave
2. Perceiver then behaves in a way that is likely to elicit the expected target behavior
3. Target indeed behaves in a way that confirms perceives expectations
4. Perceiver (Objective Perceiver) sees predicted behavior
Throughout the semester we have talked about how the ABC's of social psychology can be applied to numerous topics. Choose two of the topics and carefully describe how they can be applied, giving examples in each case.
ABC = Affect, Behavior, and Cognition.
Cognitive Dissonance : unpleasant state of arousal (affect/feeling), resulting from dissonant cognitions that one is motivated to reduce (behavior)
-You feel an unpleasant state of arousal (affect)
-You choose whether to change your cognition or behavior
-Change cognition to agree with behavior or change behavior to agree with cognitions. Add new cognition, etc.
Discrimination - Behavior
Describe how automatic processes have been incorporated into attribution, stereotyping, and persuasion research. In your opinion, what percentage of our behavior is determined by automatic thought processes? Explain your reasoning.
So we have the Fundamental Attribution Error (FAE). We do something good we internalize it. We do poorly we externalize it. It is not something we sit and think about for the most part. It's automatic.
Stereotyping would be the Ultimate Attribution Error.
Persuasion would be Mere Exposure.
Although we sometimes carefully process information, oftentimes we operate on autopilot. Provide two examples of cases where we only use superficial information to make decisions, and two examples of cases where we process carefully. When do we engage in which kind of processing?
1. Central Route: thoughtful elaboration of message, thinking more carefully about the message, happens when you're motivated and care about the issue. You're going to have a stronger view of the attitude, reasons for defending it, you will keep the attitude longer over time
-picking a roommate
-picking who to marry
2. Peripheral Route: the use of heuristics, when you're not motivated, don't care about the issue, in a hurry and don't have time to think about the issue. Results in weaker attitude change
-billboards and tv commercials use peripheral route because you are passing them quickly and don't have time to think about the issue.
We've seen several times throughout the semester that what's within our own minds, and how we interpret the world, is often more important than objective reality. Summarize three ways in which we use what we already know in our judgments and behavior, and ignore the way the world "really is."
1. Self-fulfilling Prophecy: Expectation about X. Expectation affects your behavior toward X. Your behavior forces X to confirm your expectation. (You think John is an ******
, therefor you treat John like he is an
, so your behavior affects how John acts towards you which confirms your expectations about how John is an
2. Confirmation Biases: the tendency to count/go out and find consistent information about stereotypes, and ignore inconsistent information about stereotypes (you look for evidence to support what you think and ignore evidence that does not support what you think)
3. Ultimate Attribution Error: the tendency to attribute other people's bad actions to internal factors and to attribute our own bad actions to external factors. We ignore the situational factors when it comes to other people. (Someone checking you out at the grocery store doesn't smile at you or try to make a conversation. You think, "What a rude person" but what you don't know is that the person just lost her father and a bunch of other horrible stuff happened which is why she couldn't smile)
Attributions have come up repeatedly this semester. Why do the attributions we make matter so much? Describe three domains in social psychology where making one attribution instead of another has important psychological consequences.
Attributions matter so much b/c attribution theories describe how we explain other people's' behavior.
Social influence is pervasive. Summarize three ways in which we are influenced by others, drawing from different topic areas that we've covered.
1. Social Influence: change in behavior/beliefs stemming from conformity, compliance, obedience
2. Informational Influence: we think others are right (social proof), which leads to private acceptance so you actually believe it (Sherif study)
3. Normative Influence: we're afraid of appearing deviant, we feel the need to belong which leads to public compliance so we go along with what others are saying even if we think it's wrong (Asch study)
4. Mindless Conformity: people go along with requests that follow some generally acceptable structure. So people go along with things that don't stand out in any way, as long as it doesn't deviate too much from what is expected
.Group memberships play an important role in our lives, according to social psychologists. Summarize three ways in which our memberships in groups influences our thoughts, feelings, and behavior.
1. Social Facilitation: the tendency to perform well on easy tasks and poorly on complex tasks in the presence of others. KEY: must be able to evaluate individual performance. Social facilitation only occurs when you can tell how well a specific person is performing
2. Social Loafing: the tendency to perform poorly on easy tasks and well on complex tasks in group settings. With social loafing the individual efforts cannot be evaluated so people relax because they know they aren't going to be graded specifically so they don't put as much effort into the easier tasks, but when the task is harder people are more likely to submit creative solutions to complex problems when they don't have to worry about looking stupid (anonymous)
3. Group Decision Making: none of us are as dumb as all of us (groups help people make decisions that they wouldn't normally make on their own)
4. Group Polarization: when a group's decision is more extreme than the initial inclination of its members (get a group of like-minded people who have different reasons for the same conclusion so they push each other in the same direction and get more extreme) more people = more arguments
5. Groupthink: when maintaining group cohesiveness is more important than good decision making, so groups end up making bad decisions because they care more about keeping the group together than they care about making good decisions
Some people argue that people are stubborn creatures of habit. Thinking back on the topics we've covered, describe three things that people tend to do that keep their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors from changing. In other words, what do we do to maintain stereotypes, attitudes, self- esteem, a belief that we're consistent, etc.?
Cognitive Dissonance: an unpleasant state of arousal, resulting from dissonant cognitions, that one is motivated to reduce. There are things that I believe, values that I hold, but sometimes I don't act in accordance to them (hypocrisy). We have an underlying assumption that people's attitudes dictate their behavior, however it is possible that behavior might impact attitudes
To Avoid Cognitive Dissonance:
-Change behavior to agree with your cognitions. Problem with this approach is you can't always change your behavior (if it happened in the past, you can't deny or undo it)
-Change cognition to agree with your behavior
-Add new cognitions (it was a good experience, I learned from it)
-Reduce perceived choice (someone made me do it, it wasn't my fault)
How do individualist and collectivist cultures differ? Describe how these differences apply in the domains of self-esteem, group memberships, and conformity.
Individualist cultures, such as those of the United States and Western Europe, emphasize personal achievement regardless of the expense of group goals, resulting in a strong sense of competition.
Collectivist cultures, such as those of China, Korea, and, Japan emphasize family and work group goals above individual needs or desires.
In individualistic cultures, there is a strong bias towards attributing a person's behavior to the characteristics of that person, instead of to the situation that person is in. This is called the fundamental attribution error. People in collectivist cultures have this bias to a much lesser degree
Many of the topics discussed this semester have implications for free will—the belief that we choose our own actions. Using research from attitudes, prejudice, and social cognition, discuss the implications of social psychological knowledge for the concept of free will.
Maybe this has something to do with automatic processes and how we do not always exactly "choose" what we are thinking because some things (like stereotypes or prejudices) just happen automatically without our awareness. Not really sure though, if anyone else has anything to add feel free
Some social psychologists argue that there is a "primacy of the self," that is, that we as individuals tend to value what is me, mine, and connected to me. Describe three ways in which this seems to be the case, using specific research examples.
Klee and Kandinsky
They were shown paintings painted by Klee and Kandinsky and told to pick their favorite. Participants were then assigned to groups supposedly based on their preferences, but actually just random. They were asked to evaluate groups and they showed preference for in-group members.
Sherif's Robbers Cave study
This is the camping study. Boys were put into groups and made to compete. This led to hostility and conflict. Then they had to work together.
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