the likelihood that a possible future event will occur in any given instance of the event
evaluation of the short-term and long-term risks associated with a particular activity or hazard
the process of proactive and ongoing identification, analysis, and response to risk factors
Type of hazard that can infect humans from contact with over 1,400 different types of pathogens (bacteria, viruses, parasites, protozoa, and fungi)
hazard such as smoking, unsafe working conditions, poor diet, drugs, drinking, driving, criminal assaults, unsafe sex, and poverty.
not caused by living organisms and does not spread from one person to another.
In an infection, a pathogen in the form of a bacterium, virus, or parasite invades the body and multiplies its cells in the tissues
involves the deliberate release of disease-causing bacteria or virus into the air, water supply, or food supply of concentrated urcan populations.
highly infectious respiratory disease caused by a virus, and is one of the world's biggest killers
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
a virus that attacks the human body's immune system and renders it incapable of fighting infectious and other diseases. The world's second biggest killer
Commonly known as "bird flu", and is a new avian strain of flu viruses genetically related to the 1918 killer strain emerged in Asia.
Hepatitis B Virus
virus that causes inflammation fo the liver, transmitted through any body fluid, including vaginal secretions, semen and blood. The third largest killer.
Severe Acute Respiratory Virus
First appeared in China, and is spread easily from person to person, and quickly turned into life-threatening pneumonia
an infective disease caused by sporozoan parasites that are transmitted through the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito
Oral Rehydration Therapy
A treatment involving administration of a salt and sugar solution to a child who is dehydrated from diarrhea
Ecological or Conservation Medicine
study that is devoted to tracking down the connections between wildlife and humans, and looking for ways to slow and prevent the spread of such disease
spread from pigs to their keepers, causing brain inflammation that killed 40% of the infected people
can cause harm to human or other animals because it is flammable or explosive or it can irritate or damage the skin or lungs, interfere with oxygen uptake or induce allergic reactions.
process in which malignant cells break off from tumors and travel in bodily fluids to other parts of the body. Very harmful
Hormonally active agents
can disrupt the enocrine system, reproductive system or physical/ behavioral disorders.
disrupt the endocrine system by preventing natural hormones from attatching to their receptors
unnatural chemicals in the body that disrupt hormones resulting in growth, weight, brain, and behavioral disorders
Chemical building block in certain plastics used in a variety of products such as dental fillings, baby bottles, and beverage cans.
substance used in softeners or plasticizers, and in products with colyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics and as solvents in many consumer products. May have harmful effects.
the science that examines the effects of harmful chemicals on humans, wildlife, and ecosystems.
ability of a substance to dissolve in another substance, such as sugar dissolving into water, also a measure of the amount of a substance that will dissolve in a certain colume of water
Water Soluble Toxins
(often inorganic compounds) can move throughout the environment and get into water supplies and the aqueous solutions that surrounds the cells in our body
(usually organic compounds) can penetrate the membranes surrounding cells because the membrances allow similar oil-soluble chemicals to pass through them.
in which some molecules are absorbed and stored in specific organs or tissue at higher than normal levels
a related factor in which levels of some potential toxins in the environment become magnified because they travel through the food chain. i.e: murcery
a permanent or long lasting consequence from exposure to a single dose or to repeated lower doses of a harmful substance.
When there is reasable but incomplete scientific evidence of significant harm to humans or the environment from a proposed or exixting chemical or technology, we should take action to prevent or reduce the risk instead of waiting for more conclusive evidence.
Persistant Organic Pollutants
a list of dirty pullutants that were banned all around, especially in the european union. The list includes DDT and eight other persistant organic pollutants.
Comparitive Risk Analysis
summarizing the greatest ecological and health risks identified by a panel of scientists acting as advisors of the EPA
Fear of the Unknown
The fear that most individuals have of new technology, getting older, or anything of the like