How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

68 terms

WLW APES Chapter 18 Terms

Environmental Hazards and Human Health
STUDY
PLAY
Risk
probability that something undesirable will happen as a consequence of exposure to a hazard
Probability
the likelihood that a possible future event will occur in any given instance of the event
Risk Assessment
evaluation of the short-term and long-term risks associated with a particular activity or hazard
Risk Management
the process of proactive and ongoing identification, analysis, and response to risk factors
Biological Hazards
Type of hazard that can infect humans from contact with over 1,400 different types of pathogens (bacteria, viruses, parasites, protozoa, and fungi)
Chemical Hazards
from harmful chemicals in air, water, soil, and food.
Physical Hazards
hazard such as fire, earthquake, volcanic eruption, flood, tornado, and hurricane
Cultural Hazards
hazard such as smoking, unsafe working conditions, poor diet, drugs, drinking, driving, criminal assaults, unsafe sex, and poverty.
Nontransmissable Disease
not caused by living organisms and does not spread from one person to another.
Infectious/transmissable Disease
In an infection, a pathogen in the form of a bacterium, virus, or parasite invades the body and multiplies its cells in the tissues
Bioterrorism
involves the deliberate release of disease-causing bacteria or virus into the air, water supply, or food supply of concentrated urcan populations.
Epidemic
A large scale outbreak of an infectious disease in an area or country
Pandemic
A large scale outbreak of an infectious disease that affects the entire planet
Influenza
highly infectious respiratory disease caused by a virus, and is one of the world's biggest killers
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
a virus that attacks the human body's immune system and renders it incapable of fighting infectious and other diseases. The world's second biggest killer
H5N1
Commonly known as "bird flu", and is a new avian strain of flu viruses genetically related to the 1918 killer strain emerged in Asia.
Hepatitis B Virus
virus that causes inflammation fo the liver, transmitted through any body fluid, including vaginal secretions, semen and blood. The third largest killer.
West Nile Virus
carried by a species of mosquito that affects people with weak immune systems.
Severe Acute Respiratory Virus
First appeared in China, and is spread easily from person to person, and quickly turned into life-threatening pneumonia
Malaria
an infective disease caused by sporozoan parasites that are transmitted through the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito
Oral Rehydration Therapy
A treatment involving administration of a salt and sugar solution to a child who is dehydrated from diarrhea
Ecological or Conservation Medicine
study that is devoted to tracking down the connections between wildlife and humans, and looking for ways to slow and prevent the spread of such disease
Nipah Virus
spread from pigs to their keepers, causing brain inflammation that killed 40% of the infected people
Toxic Chemicals
can cause temporary or permanent harm or death to humans or animals
Hazardous Chemical
can cause harm to human or other animals because it is flammable or explosive or it can irritate or damage the skin or lungs, interfere with oxygen uptake or induce allergic reactions.
Carcinogens
chemicals or types of radiation that can cause or promote cancer
Teterogens
are chemicals that cause harm or birth defects to a fetus or embryo
Neurotoxins
toxins that can harm the human nervous system
Endocrine Disruptors
chemicals that disrupt normal hormone functions.
Hormones
chemical "messengers" of the endocrine system that are released into the blood
Metastasis
process in which malignant cells break off from tumors and travel in bodily fluids to other parts of the body. Very harmful
Immune System
the cells, tissues, and organs that protect the body from disease.
Hormonally active agents
can disrupt the enocrine system, reproductive system or physical/ behavioral disorders.
Hormone Blockers
disrupt the endocrine system by preventing natural hormones from attatching to their receptors
Gender Benders
akin to hormone mimics, but they can disrupt sexual reproduction and development
Thyroid Disprptors
unnatural chemicals in the body that disrupt hormones resulting in growth, weight, brain, and behavioral disorders
Bisphenol-A
Chemical building block in certain plastics used in a variety of products such as dental fillings, baby bottles, and beverage cans.
Phthalates
substance used in softeners or plasticizers, and in products with colyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics and as solvents in many consumer products. May have harmful effects.
Methyl Isocyanate
an explosive gas used to produce carbamate pesticides.
Toxicology
the science that examines the effects of harmful chemicals on humans, wildlife, and ecosystems.
Toxicity
is a measure of how harmful a substance is causing injury, or death to a living organism
Dose
the amount of a substance a person has ingested, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin.
Genetic Makeup
determines an individual's sensitivity to a particular toxin
Multiple chemical sensitivity
a condition where an individual is sensitive to many toxins
Solubulity
ability of a substance to dissolve in another substance, such as sugar dissolving into water, also a measure of the amount of a substance that will dissolve in a certain colume of water
Water Soluble Toxins
(often inorganic compounds) can move throughout the environment and get into water supplies and the aqueous solutions that surrounds the cells in our body
Oil-or-fat soluble
(usually organic compounds) can penetrate the membranes surrounding cells because the membrances allow similar oil-soluble chemicals to pass through them.
Persistance
a substances resistance to breakdown and tendancy of reapearing
Bioaccumulation
in which some molecules are absorbed and stored in specific organs or tissue at higher than normal levels
Biomagnification
a related factor in which levels of some potential toxins in the environment become magnified because they travel through the food chain. i.e: murcery
Antagonistic Interactions
can reduce harmful effects of toxins
Synergistic Interactions
multiplies the harmful effects of toxins
Response
The type and amount of health that results from exposure to a chemical or other agent.
Acute Effect
an immideate or rapid harmful reaction to an exposure
Chronic Effect
a permanent or long lasting consequence from exposure to a single dose or to repeated lower doses of a harmful substance.
Poison
any substance that causes injury or illness or death of a living organism
Pollution prevention
The act of not releasing knowingly harmful chemicals into the environment
Precautionary Principal
When there is reasable but incomplete scientific evidence of significant harm to humans or the environment from a proposed or exixting chemical or technology, we should take action to prevent or reduce the risk instead of waiting for more conclusive evidence.
Persistant Organic Pollutants
a list of dirty pullutants that were banned all around, especially in the european union. The list includes DDT and eight other persistant organic pollutants.
Risk Analysis
Identify Risks, gauge probability, estimate impact, find strategy
Comparitive Risk Analysis
summarizing the greatest ecological and health risks identified by a panel of scientists acting as advisors of the EPA
Risk Communication
Informing the public about risks
WHO
World Health Organization
CDC
a federal agency in the Department of Health and Human Services
EPA
the environmental protection agency
Degree of Control
a greater force that causes us to demonstrate a certain level of control
Fear of the Unknown
The fear that most individuals have of new technology, getting older, or anything of the like
Mutagens
agents, such as chemicals or radiation, that damage or alter genetic material in cells