Mastering Biology Chapter 17
Terms in this set (51)
What name is given to the process in which a strand of DNA is used as a template for the manufacture of a strand of pre-mRNA?
What name is given to the process in which the information encoded in a strand of mRNA is used to construct a protein?
What name is given to the process in which pre-mRNA is edited into mRNA?
Polypeptides are assembled from _____.
RNA processing converts the RNA transcript into _____.
The flow of information in a cell proceeds in what sequence?
DNA to RNA to Protein
A codon consists of _____ bases and specifies which _____ will be inserted into the polypeptide chain.
three ... amino acid
The nitrogenous base adenine is found in all members of which group?
ATP, RNA, and DNA
A particular triplet of bases in the template strand of DNA is 5' AGT 3'. The corresponding codon for the mRNA transcribed is
3' UCA 5'.
The genetic code is essentially the same for all organisms. From this, one can logically assume which of the following?
A gene from an organism can theoretically be expressed by any other organism.
A possible sequence of nucleotides in the template strand of DNA that would code for the polypeptide sequence phe-leu-ile-val would be
3' AAA-GAA-TAA-CAA 5'.
What amino acid sequence will be generated, based on the following mRNA codon sequence?
5' AUG-UCU-UCG-UUA-UCC-UUG 3'
DNA does not store the information to synthesize which of the following?
Transcription begins at a promoter. What is a promoter?
A site in DNA that recruits the RNA Polymerase
Which of the following statements best describes the promoter of a protein-coding gene?
The promoter is a nontranscribed region of a gene.
What determines which base is to be added to an RNA strand during transcription?
Base pairing between the DNA template strand and the RNA nucleotides
Which of the following terms best describes the relationship between the newly synthesized RNA molecule and the DNA template strand?
What happens to RNA polymerase II after it has completed transcription of a gene?
It is free to bind to another promoter and begin transcription.
Where does RNA polymerase begin transcribing a gene into mRNA?
It starts after a certain nucleotide sequence called a promoter.
What is the function of RNA polymerase?
It unwinds the double helix and adds nucleotides to a growing strand of RNA.
Which of the following statements best describes the termination of transcription in prokaryotes?
RNA polymerase transcribes through the terminator sequence, causing the polymerase to separate from the DNA and release the transcript.
Which of the following does not occur in prokaryotic gene expression, but does in eukaryotic gene expression?
A poly-A tail is added to the 3' end of an mRNA and a cap is added to the 5' end.
In eukaryotes there are several different types of RNA polymerase. Which type is involved in transcription of mRNA for a globin protein?
RNA polymerase II
Transcription in eukaryotes requires which of the following in addition to RNA polymerase?
several transcription factors
During RNA processing a(n) _____ is added to the 5' end of the RNA.
modified guanine nucleotide
During RNA processing a(n) _____ is added to the 3' end of the RNA.
a long string of adenine nucleotides
Spliceosomes are composed of _____.
snRNPs and other proteins
The RNA segments joined to one another by spliceosomes are _____.
Translation occurs in the _____.
After an RNA molecule is transcribed from a eukaryotic gene, what are removed and what are spliced together to produce an mRNA molecule with a continuous coding sequence?
Alternative RNA splicing
can allow the production of proteins of different sizes and functions from a single mRNA.
RNA polymerase moves in which direction along the DNA?
3' to 5' along the template strand
Properties of RNA
tRNA - Contains Anticodon
mRNA - Specifies the amino acid sequence for a protein,contains exons
rRNA - is a component of ribosomes, most abundant form of rna
Where Does Translation Take place
Which nucleic acid is translated to make a protein?
Which of the following processes is an example of a post-translational modification?
Which of the following steps occurs last in the initiation phase of translation?
The large ribosomal subunit joins the complex.
At which site do new aminoacyl tRNAs enter the ribosome during elongation?
What is meant by translocation?
The ribosome slides one codon down the mRNA.
How is translation initiated?
The small ribosomal subunit binds to the mRNA.
The tRNA bearing methionine binds to the start codon.
The large ribosomal subunit binds to the small one.
The start codon signals the start of translation.
Accuracy in the translation of mRNA into the primary structure of a polypeptide depends on specificity in the
bonding of the anticodon to the codon and the attachment of amino acids to tRNAs.
Which of the following is the first event to take place in translation in eukaryotes?
the small subunit of the ribosome recognizes and attaches to the 5' cap of mRNA
The process of translation, whether in prokaryotes or eukaryotes, requires tRNAs, amino acids, ribosomal subunits, and which of the following?
polypeptide factors plus GTP
What is the function of the release factor (RF)?
It binds to the stop codon in the A site in place of a tRNA.
What does a mutagen cause?
a change in the sequence of DNA
Which of these is currently considered the best definition of a gene?
A gene codes for either a polypeptide or an RNA molecule.
Which of the following statements is true about protein synthesis in prokaryotes?
Translation can begin while transcription is still in progress.
In comparing DNA replication with RNA transcription in the same cell, which of the following is true only of replication?
The entire template molecule is represented in the product.
In eukaryotic cells, transcription cannot begin until
several transcription factors have bound to the promoter.
The anticodon of a particular tRNA molecule is
complementary to the corresponding mRNA codon.
Which component is not directly involved in translation?
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