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NOT: negative reinforcer

Four-month-old Simon quickly learns that he will be picked up if he cries. From a behaviorist perspective, picking up Simon whenever he cries is a ________ for the baby.


Studies by Ader and Cohen revealed that classical conditioning can produce


After finishing a big project, your parent's give you a gift certificate to your favorite store. The gift certificate is an example of a primary reinforcer.

requires some relatively permanent change to occur.

Any situation that involves learning


Pavlov's dog learned to anticipate food whenever he was presented with stimuli associated with food. Pavlov knew that his dog associated specific stimuli with food because the ________ was elicited by the stimuli

NOT: Natalie scraping her nails on the board

As Natalie, who has extremely long nails, approaches the chalkboard, many of her classmates cover their ears. What represents the conditioned stimulus?


Jennifer was stung by a bee several days ago. Now she cries out whenever any flying insect comes too close. Jennifer is demonstrating


Wendell always gets anxious prior to taking a math test. In science, his class has just started a section on physics which happens to include many formulas and numbers. When the teacher announces a quiz in science, Wendell begins to feel anxious. What is Wendell demonstrating?

extinction has occurred

Grayson's dog salivates each time he hears the fridge door open. Grayson decides to try an experiment. He sets up several trials where his dog salivates upon hearing the fridge door open but does not receive any food. As a result, the dog stops salivating when the fridge door is opened. What happened?

white rat

Watson and Raynor conditioned fear in Little Albert using a ________ as a CS.

be unable to eat a hotdog at the next ball game he attends.

Kenny ate several hotdogs at the baseball game. Several hours later he got very nauseous and spent most of the night being physically sick. We can expect that he will

aversive conditioning.

Some children with seizure problems bang their heads against a wall causing themselves serious injury. As a result, a psychologist might administer a brief electric shock to such a child every time she bangs her head on the wall. This would be an example of

NOT: the consequences of behavior are the CR to environmental stimuli.

In operant conditioning

waking up just before the alarm clock goes off in order to avoid the obnoxious alarm sound

Which of the following is an example of negative reinforcement?

NOT: negative reinforcer

Four-month-old Simon quickly learns that he will be picked up if he cries. From a behaviorist perspective, picking up Simon whenever he cries is a ________ for the baby.

learned helplessness

One of your sorority sisters is in an abusive relationship. Her boyfriend physically abuses her and this has lead to several hospital visits. In talking with her, you discover that she also was abused by her father as a child. You now begin to understand why she puts up with an abusive boyfriend. This is a classic example of


Money is an example of a(n) _______ because it is a secondary reinforcer that can be exchanged for a primary reinforcer

continuous reinforcement

Carol gives her dog, Oscar, a treat each time he sits on command. Carol is using a ________ schedule to train her dog to sit on command

partial reinforcement

Fred's parents are very inconsistent. Most of the time Fred climbs on the furniture without receiving any reprimands, however sometimes he is punished for this behavior. Fred's parents cannot understand why he is not a better behaved child. Fred's parents are reinforcing his negative behaviors on a ________ schedule.

fixed ratio

A worker is paid $25 for every 20 wind chimes that she builds. On which schedule of reinforcement is she being paid?

negative punishment

Little Frankie loses five minutes of recess each time he misbehaves in class. His teacher is using

NOT: The child is "bad" and needs to be punished

Which of the following is the response most parents give when asked why they physically punish their children?

motor reproduction

Andrea is an avid golfer. She tries to imitate Michelle Wie's swing which she has seen on television and in person. This is an example of

NOT: motor reproduction

Which process determines whether or not an imitated or modeled act will be repeated?

NOT: operant

On the way home from work, you decide to explore a side street that you have passed on several occasions. You are surprised to find that it runs parallel to the expressway. Several weeks later, there is a major accident on your usual travel route so you take this alternate route home. This is an example of ________ learning.

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