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Which of the following is a primary reinforcer?


Studies by Ader and Cohen revealed that classical conditioning can produce

Simon whines whenever he wants something

Which of the following behaviors indicate learning?

associative learning

Anticipating a scary event whenever eerie music is played in a movie is a function of

NOT: associative learning.

Little Millie covers her ears every time she sees a flash of lightening during a storm. This reaction demonstrates


Pavlov's dog learned to anticipate food whenever he was presented with stimuli associated with food. Pavlov knew that his dog associated specific stimuli with food because the ________ was elicited by the stimuli.

NOT: conditioned response

Pavlov's dog salivated each time food was presented. Salivation in this situation was the

sneezing in response to pepper

Which of the following is an example of an innate UCS-UCR connection?

Natalie approaching the board

As Natalie, who has extremely long nails, approaches the chalkboard, many of her classmates cover their ears. What represents the conditioned stimulus?

NOT: association.

Being able to predict the occurrence of one stimulus by the presence of another one is called


Ronald, a recovering alcoholic, has not had a drink in seven months. He has stopped visiting all of his regular bars and has lost his craving for alcohol. When his boss invites him out to "his favorite" bar one day after work, Ronald gets an overwhelming desire to have a drink. What is Ronald demonstrating?

NOT: part of the reconditioning process

A squirrel eats an acorn, just as it does every day, but this time the acorn makes the squirrel sick. The squirrel then avoids acorns for more than a month. This avoidance behavior is

NOT: environmental triggers may be able to circumvent our biological preparedness

You are surprised to discover that classical conditioning can produce immunosuppression. The original discovery of this phenomenon involved rats, but more recent studies indicate that immunosuppression may also occur in humans. This means that


Who used puzzle boxes to examine the power of consequences in determining voluntary behavior?

the Law of Effect.

Kevin used to cry, whine, throw temper tantrums, and eventually start screaming in the department store whenever he wanted a toy. His mother would resist initially but when he would start screaming she would give in. Eventually, Kevin started with the screaming to get his toy. Kevin is demonstrating


Some bears kept in captivity allow veterinarians to routinely give them total body checkups. These bears open their mouths for teeth cleaning and present their paws for nail clipping. Your friend wonders how anyone could ever get these dangerous animals to be so cooperative without anesthesia. From your study of psychology, you quickly surmise that the bears have undergone an extensive ________ program.

learned helplessness

If, through experience, you come to the conclusion that all things are beyond your control and therefore you should not even try, you are exhibiting


A reinforcer that acquires its positive value through experience is a(n) ________ reinforcer.


Mark's dog, Gus, sits whenever Mark says, "Sit." Mark now wants to teach Gus a new trick. He wants to teach him to bark every time he says, "Speak," but whenever Mark says, "Speak," Gus just sits. The dog's behavior is an example of

The parent was spanked as a child and their child also needs strong discipline.

Which of the following is the response most parents give when asked why they physically punish their children?

NOT: classical

What principles of learning do behavior modification programs rely on in order to help people change?


On the way home from work, you decide to explore a side street that you have passed on several occasions. You are surprised to find that it runs parallel to the expressway. Several weeks later, there is a major accident on your usual travel route so you take this alternate route home. This is an example of ________ learning


________ is the species specific biological predisposition to learn in certain ways but not others.

All of these: -
It influences the degree to which classical and operant conditioning are used.
-It influences the degree to which observational learning is used.
- It can determine the content of learning.

How does culture influence human learning

uncontrolled negative events can lower immune system functioning

Your sorority sister is a pre-law student. After reading about the importance of control over aversive events, she decides that pop quizzes can cause physical harm and should be banned as students have no control over when they will occur. Her position has some merit because

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