Research Methods 2a-6b

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T/F: Research findings should be interpreted objectively, without the influence of politics or personal ideology
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Terms in this set (79)
The following is a form of research: - Exploratory research - Descriptive research - Explanatory research - Applied research - All of the aboveAll of the aboveThis section of a research proposal reviews prior research to describe what we already know about a given topicLiterature ReviewT/F: The types of research discussed in this lecture are mutually exclusiveFalseThe process of defining specific concepts you plan to study is calledConceptualizationT/F: Research is used to better understand crime and inform CJ/HLS policies and practicesTrueHow we measure concepts in research is calledOperationalizationT/F: When designing a study, researchers must weigh the benefits of conducting research against the harms that may occur to the individuals under studyTrueT/F: In field research, it is especially difficult to obtain informed consent because it may influence observations.TrueT/F: Confidentiality means that researchers cannot link information to individuals participantsFalseT/F: When reporting study findings, the researcher is responsible for making any shortcomings known to readers.TrueT/F: Negative research findings should never be publishedFalseT/F: Federal law states that researchers are not required to report criminal acts disclosed to them, and protects researchers from being subpoenaed for information about their subjectsTrueT/F: When it comes to reporting child abuse, researchers should warn participants at the beginning of the interview that information about child abuse must be reported to the appropriate authoritiesTrueT/F: Juveniles and incarcerated individuals are considered special populations in CJ/HLS research and deserve special protectionsTrueThe basic principle of "do not harm" includes avoiding harm to: - participants - researchers - third parties - all of the aboveAll of the aboveThe process of ensuring that subjects must understand the purpose of the research, the possible risks, the possible side effects, and the study procedures is known as:Informed consentThe phenomenon where reducing crime in one physical area crime to increase in another physical area is known asDisplacementThe review committee at government and non-government agencies responsible for ensuring studies are designed in an ethical manner are calledInstitutional Review BoardsT/F: Cross-Sectional studies collect data at multiple time pointsFalseT/F: Research questions are more specific than hypothesesFalseT/F: This course will mainly focus on the ways in which we analyze dataFalseT/F: A theory is an explanation about the relationship between a group of conceptsTrueT/F: The dependent variable is the variable that represents the "cause"False___ explanations seek to explain a number of similar phenomena or situationsNomotheticThe criteria for causality are: - cause precedes effect - empirical correlation between variables - relationship is not the result of some third variable - all of the aboveAll of the aboveMaking an assumption about individuals based on findings about a group of other aggregation is called anEcological fallacyT/F: the unit of analysis is what "makes up" your data pointsTrueT/F: Variables only contain one categoryFalseT/F: In social science, theories typically explain the behaviors of specific individualsFalseThese types of data are numericalQuantitativeT/F: The independent variable is the variable you are measuring as the outcome (the effect)False___ moves from the specific to the generalinductive reasoningT/F: A variable is anything we are trying to measure that can varyTruethe words or symbols in language that we use to represent the "mental images" we have about subjective phenomena are:ConceptsThe process in which we precisely specify what we mean when we use a particular term is:ConceptualizationThis level of measurement is categorical with ranked categoriesOrdinalWhen you compare one measure with another measure that is already accepted as valid to see if the two are related, is this calledCriterion-related validityT/F: A reliable measure is an accurate measureFalseT/F: Your mental images of crime vary based on your background and experienceTrueT/F: The concept of serious crime can be directly and indirectly observedFlaseT/F: Operational definitions describe exactly how a concept will be measuredTrueT/F: An easy way to make lists exhaustive is to add "other" as a response optionTrueT/F: NIBRS reports less information about crimes known to police than the UCRFalseWhich quasi-experimental design matches participants in experimental group with participants in comparison groupNon-equivalent groups designT/F: The dependent variable is the causeFalseT/F: The experimental group receives the interventionTrueT/F: a pretest is measured after an intervention is introducedFalseA classical experiment includes: - independent and dependent variables - pretesting and posttesting - experimental and control groups - all of the aboveAll of the above____refers to whether the results of an experiments in one sitting will be obtained in other settingsExternal validityWhich quasi-experimental design compares groups of subjects who enter or leave an institution at the same time?Cohort designT/F: Historical events may occur during an experiment that confound the experimental resultsTrueT/F: by randomly assigning subjects to experimental and control groups, the groups are assumed to be equalTrueT/F: The control group receives the interventionFalseWhich quasi-experimental design compares a series of observations before and after an intervention is introduced?Time-series designT/F: instrumentation threats to internal validity occur when changes are made to how the dependent variables is measuredTrueT/F: Because it is nearly impossible to study an entire population, we make observations on a subset, or sample, or the populationTrueT/F: sampling error can be reduced by a large sample sizeTrueT/F: sampling error can be reduced by a heterogenous populationFalseT/F: in the probability sampling, each member of the population has known chance or probability of being selectedTrueA list of elements from which a probability sample is selected is called aSampling frameA researcher who assigns a number to each element on a list and selects a random set of numbers for the sample is employingSimple random samplingA researcher who assigns a number to each element on a list and selects every nth element from that list is employingSystematic samplingA researcher who organizes the population into homogeneous subsets and randomly selects elements from each subset is employingStratified samplingA researcher who randomly samples an aggregate unit, then randomly samples individual elements within these units is employingMultistage cluster samplingT/F: In nonprobability sampling, the likelihood that any give element will be selected is not knownTrueA researcher who selects a sample based on his/her judgement and purpose of the study is employingPurposive samplingA researcher who selects a sample based on proportions within a matrix that describes characteristics of the target population is employingQuota samplingA researcher who selects a sample based on who is available is employingReliance on available subjectsA researcher who selects a sample by identifying a single subject and asking the subject to identify others like themselves is employingSnowball sampling