Semester Exam Review

Science Exam review
STUDY
PLAY
warm front
a front where warm air moves over cold air and brings drizzly rain and then are followed by warm and clear weather
cold front
forms when cold air moves under warm air which is less dense and pushes air up (produces thunderstorms heavy rain or snow
occlude front
A boundary that forms when a cold front overtakes a warm front
stationary front
a boundary between air masses that don't move possibly causing rain for several days
Air mass
Move from the West to East in the U.S...What meterolgist base daily weather off of
Airmass over land/water
Is different due to the unequal heating of the earth. It takes water longer to heat.
Troposphere
There lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere, where weather occurs.
Mesosphere
the layer of the atmosphere between the stratosphere and the thermosphere and in which temperature decreases as altitude increases and meteor burn up
Stratosphere
the layer of the atmosphere that contains the ozone layer; temperature increases as you go up
Thermosphere
The outermost layer of Earth's atmosphere.
Ionosphere
layer of electrically charged particles in the thermosphere that absorbs AM radio waves during the day and reflects them back at night (Northern lights)
Exosphere
the layer of the atmosphere that fades into outer space
Humidity
the amount of water vapor in the air
Relative Humidity
the ratio of the amount of water in the air at a give temperature to the maximum amount it could hold at that temperature
Dew point
the temperature at which the water vapor in the air becomes saturated and condensation begins
Temperature
the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment (corresponding to its molecular activity)
Wind
Movement of air masses
Daily weather forecasting
Meteorologist look at air mass movements
High Pressure system
generally brings clear skies and calm air or gentle breezes (clockwise)
Low Pressure system
Pressure system with counterclockwise and inward winds that brings cloudiness and stormy weather
Anemometer
Measures wind speed
Barometer
Measures air pressure
Hygrometer
measures humidity or moisture (water vapor)
Thermometer
An instrument used to measure temperature
Weather vane
Tells wind direction
Weather balloon
Carries instruments that checks weather for weather stations
Weather satellite
Greatest technological impact in weather
Jet Stream
narrow belt of strong winds that blows near the top of the troposphere (Planes fly in)
Polar Easterlies
Dry, cold, winds: blow near poles
Trade Winds
Blow from NE
Precipitation
Rain, sleet, hail, snow
Evaporation
Water turning from a liquid to gas
Condensation
the process in which water vapor in the atmosphere becomes liquid (cloud)
Runoff
water that flows over the ground surface rather than soaking into the ground
Elevation
Higher in the atmosphere you go,air pressure decreases
Coriolis effect
The way Earth's rotation makes winds in the Northern Hemisphere curve to the right and winds in the Southern Hemisphere curve to the left.
Earth's rotation
causes day and night
Earth's revolution
is the movement of earth around the sun
How long does it take the earth to rotate around the sun?
365.25 days
How are the Northern/Southern hemisphere's different
They do the opposite: seasons, moons, hurricanes, winds, etc...
Seasons
Caused by the tilt of the earths axis
How does the sun affect gravity?
Gravity binds us/other plants to orbit around the sun
Milky Way
Our galaxy
Why is our galaxy called the milky way?
It looks "milky" in appearance
Galaxy
Made up of planets, stars, gas, and dust all head together by gravity
Elliptical galaxy
Irregular galaxy
Spiral galaxy
Spherical
Round shape
Light years
186 miles per light year
Solar systems age
Younger than the universe
How old is the sun/solar system?
around 4.5 million years old
Universe is constantly
expanding in size
x-ray telescopes
uses x-rays from space (high energy)
Light from the galaxy
As it moves towards you it turns blue, as it moves away it darkens
Where is the sun located in our galaxy
on orion's arm
Crust
the outermost layer of the Earth that floats on magma
Continental crust
Under continents (thick)
oceanic crust
ocean floor (thinnest)
mantle
thickest layer of the Earth, part liquid part solid where convection currents are found
inner core
A dense sphere of solid iron and nickel at the center of Earth
outer core
the liquid layer of the Earth's core that lies beneath the Mantle and surrounds the inner Core
Depth of the Earth
more density, pressure and hotter
Asthenosphere
100- 35 KM thick. Plastic, pliable, weak, hot, flows, more dense., the soft layer of the mantle on which the lithosphere floats
Lithosphere
the rigid outer layer of Earth, including the crust and upper mantle
faulting
a crack in the earth's surface where two pieces of land have moved in different directions
Folding
Occurs when rock layers bend due to the stress in the Earth's crust.
basalt
a dark, dense, igneous rock with a fine texture, found in oceanic crust
Granite
A usually light colored igneous rock that is found in continental crust
Earth with more CO2
Earth will heat up
Tectonic plates
individual sections of the lithosphere of the earth. They fit together in a way similar to a jigsaw puzzle, but are always moving very slowly, floating on the molten rock of the lower mantle.
Continental drift
The hypothesis that states that the continents once formed a single landmass, broke up, and drifted to their present locations.
What will earth look like 50 million years from now?
Pangea Ultima (land will slowly start to drift back together to make one big content)
Transform boundary
the boundary between tectonic plates that are sliding past each other horizontally
Divergent boundary
Plates that are dividing
Convergent
Plates that are colliding
Deep Sea Trench
formed by the subduction of plates
Volcanic arc
Chain of volcanoes formed by underwater convergent boundaries
continetal mountains
Thickest part of the earths crust
Earthquakes
sudden movements of Earth's crust followed by a series of shocks occurs near a fault zone
Epicenter
the point on the Earth's surface directly above the focus of an earthquake
focus
the point inside the Earth where an earthquake begins
L Waves
waves that travel horizontally, surface waves; last, slowest; bend & twist crust doing the most damage
P Waves
Push/pull waves; 1st, fastest, & go through solids & liquids
S waves
Side-to-side waves; 2nd, slower, & go though solids;
Pangea
large supercontinent that existed 250 million years ago
Microwave radiation
A form of radiant energy in which heat is transferred by short, high-frequency waves.
UV waves (ultra violet)
Invisible to the human eye, causes skin cancer. ex: from sun
Visible light
electromagnetic waves that are visible to the human eye
gamma radiation
shortest wavelengths and highest frequencies...used in hospitals to treat cancer.
x-ray
because of their high frequencies these can be used to see bones in the body
radio waves
electromagnetic waves with the longest wavelengths and lowest frequencies.
Qualitative
descriptive data Ex: describes how something taste, smells, texture, color, etc..
Quantitative
Deals with numbers: measurement
Tropical storm
when the winds of a tropical depression begin to blow even faster and thunderstorms move in spiral bands toward the area of lowest air pressure
Hurricane
a severe tropical cyclone usually with heavy rains and winds moving a 73 or more MPH
What must a tropical storm reach to become a hurricane in KNOTS?
64
Tides
Moons gravitational pull effects high/low tide
Prime meridian
Runs N to S
equinox
twice-yearly time-each spring and fall-when the Sun is directly over the equator and the number of daylight and nighttime hours are equal worldwide
Summer solstice
June 21 or 22, when the sun is at its northernmost point
Winter Solstice
December21 or 22, when the sun is at its southernmost point
three reasons we have seasons
Tilt of the earth, revolution of earth, North pole always points in the same direction
How many degrees does the earth move each hour?
15 degrees
axis
is what the earth spins on
how many moon phases are there?
8
crescent moon
gibbous moon
full moon
new moon
what moon is this?
Waning
shrinking
Waxing
growing
How long is the lunar month?
29.5 days
Alto
high
Altocumulus cloud
white/gray medium clouds that occur in puffs
asteroid
a piece of rock or metal made up of material similar to that which formed the planets; mostly found in the asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter
atmospheric pressure
the pressure exerted by the atmosphere as altitude increases pressure decreases and vice versa
aurora
an atmospheric phenomenon consisting of bands of light caused by charged solar particles known as "Northern Lights"
black hole
a region of space resulting from the collapse of a star
body waves
these are the s and p waves because they travel through the body of the Earth.
carbon dioxide
a heavy odorless colorless gas formed during respiration and by the decomposition of organic substances
nitrogen cycle
the transfer of nitrogen from the atmosphere to the soil, to living organisms, and back to the atmosphere
carbon cycle
the movement of carbon from the nonliving environment into living things and back
water cycle
the continuous movement of water between Earth's surface and the air, changing from liquid to gas to liquid
oxygen cycle
A natural cycle in which plants and Other procucers use carbon dioxide and produce oxygen, and Living things use oxygen and produce carbon dioxide.
green house effect
process by which heat is trapped by gasses in earth's atmophere
richter scale
Used to measure magnitude of earthquake. 1935 by Charles F. Richter - scale of 1.0 - 9.0 = size of seismic waves.
cirrus
a wispy white cloud (usually of fine ice crystals) at a high altitude (4 to 8 miles)
stratus
Clouds that form in low, horizontal layers, cover all or most of sky
cumulus
Clouds that look like fluffy, rounded piles of cotton
nimbus
a dark gray cloud bearing rain
Celsius
F - 32 / 1.8
Fahrenheit
C X 1.8 + 32
cold front symbols
Blue line with triangles
Warm front symbols
Red line with half circles
Stationary front symbols
With circles and triangles
Alkali metal
most reactive metal, group 1
Hydrogen
Group by itself
Atom
Small particle of matter
Atomic mass
Number at the bottom of the periodic table
Atomic number
number at the top of the periodic table...Show how many protons and neutrons there are
base
8-14 on pH scale
Acid
1-6 on pH Scale
Water on pH scale
7 (neutral)
biomass
organic matter such as: plants, wood and waste that contain stored energy
chemical change
A change in matter that produces one or more new substances
Physical Change
A change that alters the form or appearance of a material but does not make the material into another substance.
Compound
a pure substance composed of 2 or more elements
Compound machine
a machine that is made of simple machines
Conductor
A material that allows energy (electrons) to pass through very easily.
crest
highest point of a transverse wave
Ductile
A term used to describe a material that can be pulled out into a long wire
Electrical energy
the energy of electric charges
Electromagnetic wave
A form of energy that can travel through space.
Electron cloud
where electrons (-) are found Outer shell
Electron charges
negative
Element
a pure substance
endothermic
Absorbs heat
energy
ability to do work
Pulley
a simple machine consisting of a wheel with a groove in which a rope can run to change the direction or point of application of a force applied to the rope
lever
A simple machine that has a bar that is free to pivot or turn around a fixed point
wedge
An inclined plane that moves
incline plane
a sloping surface, such as a ramp, that reduces the amount of force required to do work
wheel and axle
Two different sized circular objects that are attached together and turn as one.
force
A push or a pull.
Fossil fuels
Coal, oil, natural gas, and other fuels that are ancient remains of plants and animals.
frequency
How often
friction
A force that resists motion
gamma rays
Electromagnetic waves with the shortest wavelengths and highest frequencies.
Generator
A device used to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy.
Geothermal energy
the energy produced by heat within the earth
gravity
It is a force that pulls an object toward Earth.
group
a column of elements on the periodic table
inertia
tendency of objects to resist change
infrared waves
second on the electromagnetic spectrum going from lowest to highest frequency. can be felt as heat
Kinetic energy
the energy of motion
law of conservation of energy
energy can not be created or destroyed . It can only change forms
law of conservation of mass
matter can not be created or destroyed. It can only change forms
machine
makes work easier
Malleable
capable of being shaped
mass
Amount of matt an object has
matter
anything (nonliving) that has mass and volume
metalloid
Elements that have properties of both metals and nonmetals. (zigzag line)
metals
Elements that are good conductors of heat and electric current, malleable, and shiny (left side)
mixture
two or more substances not chemically combined ex: air
neutrons
no charge located in the nucleus
nonmetals
most are gas found of the right side
nonrenewable resources
resources that cannot be replaced. ex: oil, coal, gas
period
row of elements on the periodic table
Potential energy
Energy that is stored and held in readiness
radio waves
Electromagnetic waves with the longest wavelengths and lowest frequencies.
reactants
Molecules entering or starting a reaction
renewable resources
solar, wind, water, geothermal, biomass
screw
simple machine has a spiral shape
speed
Rate at which an object moves
ultraviolet light
Another type of electromagnetic wave produced by the sun that has shorter wavelenghts and higher frequencies than visible light.
visible light
Electromagnetic waves that you can see
X-rays
Electromagnetic radiation having a very short wavelength; can penetrate substances such as skin and muscle.
117
number of elements on the periodic table
atomic number
the periodic table is arranged by ________.
Photosynthesis
6CO2 + 6H2O + light --> C6H12O6 + 6O2
CO2
Carbon Dioxide
H2O
Water
C6H12C6
Glucose/sugar
Cellular respiration
C6H12O6 + 6 O → 6 H2O + 6 CO2 + ENERGY

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