Unit 4: DNA and Cell Division
Terms in this set (69)
What did Roslin and Franklin do?
discover DNA was a helical shape
What is Chargaff's Rule?
A=T C=G (nitrogen bases)
What did Griffith, Hershey, and Chase discover?
DNA is genetic material
parts of a nucleotide
nitrogen bases, deoxyribose, phosphate group
What is the variable portion of a nucleotide?
What type of bond holds together nitrogen bases?
What type of bond holds together deoxyribose and phosphate group?
thymine and cytosine
adenosine and guanine
What is DNA Replication?
when DNA creates exact copies of itself
When does DNA Replication occur?
occurs during the Interphase stage of Mitosis
What proteins carry out DNA Replication?
helichse and DNA polymerase
What does Helichse do?
unzips double helix in both directions
What does DNA polymerase do?
copies and checks the DNA precisely
Name the two types of cells in your body.
somatic cells and germ cells
How many chromosomes do body cells have?
How many chromosomes do germ cells have?
What is a chromosome?
Form of condensed DNA when the cell has to divide
What is another name for gametes
What is unwound DNA called?
How many pairs of chromosome do you have?
23; a pair from mom and dad
What type of chromosomes do we have?
homologous chromosomes (two chromosomes- 1 from dad and 1 from mom)
What do chromosomes contain?
22,000 genes that code for a product (proteins A T C G)
homologous chromosome pairs 1-22
23rd pair. X= female Y= male
Why are body cells diploid?
they have 2 sets of chromosomes from mom and dad to make a total of 46
Why are gametes haploid?
they either are a sperm or an egg that only carry a set of 23 chromosomes
What is the fusion of an egg and a sperm called?
What is a fertilized egg called?
What are the four stages of The Cell Cycle?
Gap1, Synthesis, Gap2, Mitosis (Cytokinesis)
almost full life span of a normal cell. Everything will increase when it is ready to divide
replicate DNA. After that there are two sets of the same DNA
normal; DNA polymerase checking DNA replicate
division of cell nucleus and contents and the division of the cell cytoplasm to create two identical daughter cells
What are the stages of Mitosis?
interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis
Why does a cell divide?
As the cell grows, its surface area does not grow as fast as volume resulting in it being too small for adequate exchange of materials
How does DNA condense?
DNA wraps around proteins called histones that makes it knot up and condense
What holds the identical sister chromatids?
What and Where is a telomere?
Telomeres prevent DNA from coming apart and are found at the end of DNA molecules
What does mitosis and cytokinesis produce?
They produce two genetically identical daughter cells
prepares cell to divide (G2)
DNA coils into chromosomes, nuclear envelope breaks down and centrioles move to poles and spindle fibers form
Spindle fibers attach to each chromosome and the chromosomes align along the equator (middle)
Chromatids separate to opposite sides of cell
What is a chromatid?
half of identical DNA
Nuclear membrane starts to form and chromosomes uncoil into chromatins. Spindle fibers fall apart
division of cytoplasm. the cell finally splits into two identical daughter cells
What is Apoptosis?
genes produce self-destructive enzymes that program cell death
What breaks down in Meiosis?
Homologous pairs separate into sister chromatids which separate into 4 haploid gametes
The breakdown of a diploid cell in Meiosis:
chromosome pair separates into two identical chromosomes which separates into 23 chromosomes from mom and 23 chromosomes dad (4)
Explain Meiosis I:
Divided homologous chromosomes in the four phases (PMAT)
Explain Meiosis II:
Divided sister chromatids in four phases (PMAT)
How Meiosis is different from Mitosis:
produces 4 sex cells, they become haploid, and the products aren't identical. The gametes are all different
production of mature gametes
What do males produce?
4 equal sperm cells
What do females produce?
one large egg and smaller polar bodies that are eventually broken down
common name for class of disease characterized by uncontrolled cell division
What are the disorganized clumps in cancer called?
What are the two types of tumors?
benign and malignent
cancer cells that do not spread but keep clustered; clump of tumor
cancer cells in the tumor break away, metastasize, and travel in your blood stream through your body
How do cancer cells form?
they form from normals cells that have suffered damage to genes that make proteins involved with cell division
Name a few causes of cancer:
damage from radiation, inherited, chemicals, ultraviolet radiation
substances known to cause cancer
What two ways does reproduction occur?
sexual and asexual
Define Asexual reproduction:
creation of offspring from a single parent; genetically identical
Define Sexual reproduction:
joining of two specialized cells, one from each parent to create genetically unique offspring
Define Binary Fission:
asexual reproduction of single-cell organism
What is Binary Fission similar to?
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