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Rabban Sauma

newstorian christine priest born in the mongol capital , whom the Mongols sent to the Pope to form an alliance against the Muslims. He was received well in Rome, but failed to gain support. A few years after this attempt, the Ilkhan converted to Islam, destroying any chance of alliance.

John of Montecorvino

most active Roman catholic missionary in China, translated the new testament and the book of psalms into TUrkish language.


emperor of China but came from a very poor family and spend most of his life as a begger. Because of his size he joined the military and made his way up to become an emperor or the Ming Dynasty

Zheng He

A Muslim, entrusted by the Ming emperor Yongle with a series of state voyages that took his gigantic ships through the Indian Ocean, from Southeast Asia to Africa.

Prince Henry

campaigned to spread christianity and increase portuguese influence on the seas

Bartolomeu Dias

Portuguese explorer who in 1488 led the first expedition to sail around the southern tip of Africa from the Atlantic and sight the Indian Ocean. (p. 428)

Vasco da Gama

Portuguese explorer. In 1497-1498 he led the first naval expedition from Europe to sail to India, opening an important commercial sea route. (p. 428)

Fernando and Isabella

Spain was united by the marriage of Fernando of Aragon and Isabel of Castile

Christopher Columbus

Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China (1451-1506)


Islamic Judges


Islamic mystics who placed more emphasis on emotion and devotion than on strict adherence to rules

Little Ice Age

for 500 years the world's temperature were coolerand agriculture development declined

Black Death

a disease spead by trade and exploration and killed 10 million people in China, 25% of Euoprean population

MIng Dynasty

Founded by Hongwu, and eliminated the Mongol rule


crusade, ending in 1492, to drive the Islamic forces out of Spain


"rebirth" of Europe after the balck death


the doctrine that people's duty is to promote human welfare

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