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Study Guide- Finals
Terms in this set (51)
What is the type of child maltreatment that accounts for 4 out of 5 of the documented cases in the U.S.?
Does child maltreatment affects boys and girls almost equally?
What subcategory of child maltreatment are boys and girls are not affected equally? What is the percentage of victims?
Sexual Abuse, girls account for 80% of the victims
When boys are victims of sexual abuse, boys are more likely to have been sexually abused by?
Male non-family members
Children may be protected in part from the negative effects of maltreatment if they?
Have a positive relationship with at least one important and consistent adult.
What are symptoms of sexual abuse?
Irrational fears, depressive, anger,anxiety, afraid of the dark, difficulty falling sleeping, difficulty focusing and sustaining attention, and is often sad and withdrawn
What are symptoms of neglect?
A failure to provide for their basic physical, educational, and emotional needs.
What is emotional abuse?
Acts or omissions by the parents or caregivers that have caused, or could cause, serious behavioral, cognitive, emotional, mental
disorders, verbal threats or put-downs
Sara is an 11-year-old girl with irrational fears and depressive tendencies. In a clinical interview, her mother reports that Sara is still afraid of the dark, has difficulty falling sleeping, and is often sad and withdrawn. Her mother acknowledges that family life has been stressful since she married Sara's step-father, but emphasizes that Sara's step-father has made "valid attempts" to be friendly with Sara. During the initial intake, Sara huddles in a corner, as far away from her mother and stepfather as possible, and refuses to talk. If Sara is maltreated, her symptoms are most likely the result of:
Leroy is 5. He lives with his mother. His mother is prone to migraines and long periods of unexplained illnesses. When ill, she is incapacitated and cannot leave her room for hours, sometimes days. She never calls for a babysitter but just leaves Leroy to take care of himself. When Leroy comes in and tries to talk to his mother, she often ignores him or pretends to be asleep. She usually keeps a supply of cereal and bread so that Leroy can feed himself whenever he is hungry. However, he has at times gone all day without eating. Leroy's mother's behavior amounts to:
Sergio is 15. He is an extreme perfectionist who is always trying to "do better" but is depressed. He recently said to his therapist that he was always attempting to please his father. Ever since he can remember, his father has put him down and made fun of him for falling short of his unreasonable expectations. He frequently makes comments such as, "Wow! You are really dumb! You'd think that all those years of school would give you at least a little intelligence, but apparently not!" and "How in the world are you going to survive in this world? You aren't smart and you aren't exactly cute either!" Sergio's father's behavior amounts to:
What is emotional neglect?
Marked inattention to the child's needs for affection, refusal or failure to provide needed psychological care, spousal abuse in the child's presence, and permission of drug or alcohol use by the child.
Fourteen-year old Daisy lives in a chaotic household with her parents and six younger siblings. Being the oldest, Daisy is in charge of taking care of her siblings. Since Daisy's parents work long hours, she comes home right from school to clean the house and cook dinner. Her parents are usually so tired when they come home that they barely even speak to her or her siblings. Due to their irritability, Daisy's parents fight with each other almost every night, and their fights often become so heated that they scream loudly at each other and physically hurt each other. When she hears an argument brewing, Daisy gathers her siblings in the basement for a "slumber party." There, all the children usually fall asleep for the night. It is likely that Daisy is experiencing:
The disorder called factitious disorder by proxy (or Munchausen syndrome by proxy) is characterized by an adult (usually the mother) who maltreats her child by?
Deliberate actions directed toward making a child sick.
Derek, who is 13, has missed a lot of school due to illness. Derek has Crohn's disease, an inflammatory bowel disorder that affects the digestive track of the small intestine. Derek can only eat certain foods or else he experiences severe abdominal pain. In order to minimize his symptoms, Derek needs to take regular prescription medications and to have a hospital check-up every three months. However, his parents minimize the seriousness of their son's condition, take little care to help him keep a healthy diet, and regularly miss his hospital appointments. It would appear that Derek is experiencing:
What is physical neglect
Refusal or delay in seeking health care, expulsion from the home or refusal to allow a runaway to return home, abandonment, and inadequate supervision
Belinda is an 8-year old girl who is struggling in school. She is regularly absent from school as her mother works as a barmaid in the evening and is often too tired to get up to send her daughter to school in the morning. Her second grade teacher advised Belinda's mother to have her repeat second grade because Belinda is struggling to master basic math and language skills. Belinda's mother refused, explaining that Belinda was just a "late bloomer" and that she would catch up to her peers. Belinda's teacher also suggested that Belinda receive special educational testing to rule out the presence of a learning disability, but Belinda's mother did not think it was necessary and refused the testing. Belinda may be experiencing:
What is educational neglect?
Actions such as allowing chronic truancy, failing to enroll in school a child who is of mandatory school age, and failing to attend to a child's special educational needs.
What are behaviors often seen in physically abused children?
Poor moral reasoning skills, low self-esteem, aggression, academic failure
Victims of maltreatment are at increased risk for which several DSM-IV-TR Axis I comorbid psychological disorders?
Mood disorders, disruptive behavior disorders, anxiety disorders, and dissociative identity disorder.
What are 4 facts about child abuse and/or neglect?
Majority parents, can grow to lead productive lives, 5 children under four years old die, majority white Americans.
A maltreated child, upon seeing another child crying, is likely to?
Respond in fear or anger.
What is nocturnal?
Wetting occurs only during sleep at nigh
What is secondary enuresis?
Children who have previously established urinary continence but then relapse, usually between the ages of 5 and 6 years
A 5-year-old boy is referred to a clinic for the treatment of enuresis. He wets his bed at night, but remains dry during the daytime. He does not exhibit any other behavior problems. His mother reports that her son slept through the night without wetting for about a year, or until his baby sister was born. The boy would probably be described as exhibiting?
Nocturnal and secondary enuresis.
What is primary enuresis?
Starts at age 5, never had at least 6 months of continuous nighttime control.
What are 4 facts about enuresis?
1.) Nocturnal enuresis can exist in combination with diurnal enuresis. 2.) More girls than boys are diagnosed with diurnal enuresis. 3.) Primary enuresis is more common than secondary enuresis. 4.) A child must be 5 years of age (or developmental equivalent) to receive the diagnosis.
Full-spectrum home training for enuresis is a combination of?
Dry bed training and a urine alarm.
What are 4 facts about encopresis?
No psychological disturbance, more common in boys than girls, contracting rather than relaxing, up to 3% of children have it
The differentiation between children's nightmares and sleep terrors are?
During nightmares the child is easy to arouse and responsive to the environment, whereas during sleep terrors the child is difficult to arouse and largely unresponsive to the environment.
What appears to be successful in the treatment of sleep terrors?
A child with protodyssomnia has?
Dyssomnia, difficulty initiating or maintaining
sleep, or sleep that is not restorative; in infants, repetitive night waking and inability to fall asleep.
The only dyssomnia that often requires drug therapy is?
About 10% of mothers and fathers have trouble adjusting and suffer severe symptoms of ____________ after their child is diagnosed with a chronic illness.
Posttraumatic stress disorder
According to the 2011 National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse sample, approximately how many 12-17 year-olds met criteria for substance abuse or dependence?
A young woman whose ideal weight is 105 pounds, weighs 110 pounds. She engages in recurrent episodes of binge eating and repeatedly fasts and engages in excessive exercise to prevent weight gain. The young woman's self-esteem is based primarily on how her body looks. She would most likely receive a DSM-IV diagnosis of?
The DSM-IV-TR specifies two subtypes of anorexia based on the methods used to limit caloric intake. Interestingly, you can infer that slightly different personality characteristics fit best with each subtype. Unlike those who have the "binge-eating/purging" type of anorexia, individuals with the "restricting" type of anorexia tend to?
Be more highly controlled and rigidly disciplined.
What are 3 facts about bulimia?
More common than anorexia, two types: purging type and non-purging type, two-third engage in purging.
We can compare Binge Eating Disorder (BED) to the binging that goes on in bulimia. The thing that's different between those with BED and those with bulimia is that individuals with BED:
Do not have compensatory behaviors.
What is the initial treatment of choice for children and adolescents with mild anorexia who are still living at home?
Research from 2011 indicates that about 17% of all U.S. children are obese. A large-scale survey of all students in grades 5 through 8 found that approximately ______ of those students (including obese, overweight normal & thin kids) had tried to lose weight in the past 7 days.
Although Leptin is a protein that is believed to be associated with obesity in some individuals, current knowledge regarding the etiology of obesity suggests that?
The causes are probably multiple and complex.
The diagnosis of pica is made only after the child is 2 years old because?
Prior to this the symptoms characteristic of pica are characteristic of normally developing infants.
Pica among young children (without mental retardation) often goes away when?
The child experiences increased stimulation.
Feeding disorder of infancy or early childhood is characterized by?
Marked deceleration of weight gain.
What is encopresis?
The passage of feces into inappropriate places,
such as clothing or the foor
What is bulimia nervosa?
Eating disorder characterized by binge eating and purging, or consuming a large amount of food in a short amount of time followed by an attempt to rid oneself of the food consumed (purging), typically by vomiting, taking a laxative or diuretic, and/or excessive exercise.
What is anorexia nervosa?
Eating disorder characterized by immoderate food restriction and irrational fear of gaining weight, as well as a distorted body self-perception. It typically involves excessive weight loss
What is narcolepsy?
Irresistible attacks of refreshing sleep occurring daily, accompanied by brief episodes of loss of muscle tone
What is dyssomnia?
Disturbances in the amount, timing, or quality of sleep.
What is parassomnia?
Sleep disorders in which behavioral or physiological
events intrude on ongoing sleep, which results in sleepwalking or in nightmares.
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