describe how a historian would use evidence to reconstruct an event that happened 2,000 years ago.
first, they would collect all the written evidence available concerning the event they were studying; then they would evaluate it for itsreliability; finally, they would interpret it
list three advances made by people during the Old Stone Age
the use of tools, the development of spoken language, fire building, the invention of clothing, or the expression of spiritual beliefs through art and spiritual customs
compare the religious beliefs of Stone Age people and people of other civilizations
stone age people in early civilizations were both polytheistic and believed that gods and goddesses controlled nature and human activities. people during both times believed in an afterlife. the religious practices of ancient people were more complex than their stone age ancestors, however, and required the attention of priests, who had special training and knowledge of the divine
explain how the agricultural revolution made civilizations possible
by producing their own food and crop surpluses, people could stay in one place, and populations could grow.
list five features of early civilizations and briefly describe one
cities, well organized central governments, complex religions, job specialization, social classes, art and architecture, public works, and writing.
explain the role of rivers in the development of the first civilizations
rivers provided water for irrigation and spread rich silt accross the valleys, which enabled farmers to produce the surplus of crops necessary to feed growing populations. also, people had to work together to control the rivers' waters, which encouraged the development of well-organized governments.
define the term cultural diffusion and describe three ways it can take place
Cultural diffusion is the spread of ideas, customs, and technologies from one people to another. It occurred through migration, trade, and warfare.
Explain why the fertile crescent became a "crossroads of civilizations
It was a fertile region. Because there were few natural barriers to prevent migrating or invading people, many different groups came to the area.
Describe five significant achievements of peoples of the ancient Middle East and tell why each one was important
wheeled vehicles-helped transportation and trade;
iron working-could make stronger weapons and more sophisticated farming tools;
hieroglyphics and cuneiform-made record keeping possible
alphabet-made writing quicker and easier
astronomy-led to the development of a calendar and made it possible to predict sky phenomena such as eclipses and the positions of the planets
coins-made trade easier
What were the two most important ways ideas and new technology spread throughout the ancient Middle East?
warfare, trade, and migration
Describe the four groups into which Aryan society was divided
The four groups were Brahims (priests); Kshatriyas (warriors); Vaisyas (herders, farmers, artisans, and merchants); and Sudras (laborers)
Describe the relationship between China's geography and its belief that it was the sole source of civilization
Long distances and physical barriers, including mountains, deserts, jungles, and an ocean, separated China from the rest of the world. As a result, the Chinese knew nothing about other early civilizations and thought they were the only civilized people
Identify the following: yin and yang; Mandate of Heaven; dynastic cycle; feudalism
yin and yang- two forces representing darkness (yin) and light (yang), which needed to be in harmony for everything to be right in the universe; Mandate of Heaven- divine right to rule; dynastic cycle- describes the rise and fall of Chinese dynasties; Feudalism- system of government in which local lords governed their own lands, but owed military allegiance and other kinds of support to the ruler
List three ways that Buddhism differed from Hinduism
Buddhism rejected the formal rituals and many gods of Hinduism. Buddhists sought enlightenment through meditation. The caste system was not part of Buddhism.
Describe three ways that Chandragupta Maurya maintained order in India
Chandragupta's officials supervised the building of roads and harbors to benefit trade; other officials collected taxes and state-owned factories and shipyards; people had to go to royal courts to seek justice; and he had a brutal secret police
Describe advances in mathematics and medicine that took place in Gupta India
Advances in mathematics included the development of a system for writing numerals, the concept of zero, and the decimal system. Advances in medicine included the use of herbs for medicine, surgery to set bones or repair injuries, and vaccinations against smallpox
Identify the characteristics of family life in India
The joint family in India was patriarchal. Family members shared property. Individuals put family interest above their own. Family bonds extended across generations.
List the major differences between Legalism and Daoism
Legalism emphasized strong rulers, strict laws, and harsh punishments to achieve order. Daoism rejected government and sought harmony with nature through the virtue of yielding
Identify three differences between Sparta and Athens
Sparta was a military state that isolated itself from other Greeks and had little use for new ideas or art. Athens was a limited democracy that encouraged trade and learning.
Contrast the results of the Persian Wars and the Peloponnesian War with regard to Athens
As a result of the Persian Wars, Athens became the most powerful city-state in Greece. The Peloponnesian War ended Athenian greatness.
List three similarities between the ideas of Plato and Aristotle
Both Plato and Aristotle rejected democracy. They favored rule by a wise and virtuous leader. The emphasized the importance of reason.
Explain how Alexander's conquests led to the development of a new culture
Alexander's empire linked a vast area. He founded new cities that attracted settlers from Greece, whose culture blended with that of the local people. Alexander also encourages a blending of eastern and western cultures by marrying a Persian woman.
Describe two positive and two negative ways that winning an empire affected Rome
Winning an empire gave Rome control of busy trade routes and brought great wealth to some Romans. On the other hand, many farmers lost their land and corruption increased.
Describe two of Constantine's actions that had long-lasting effects on Europe
Constantine granted toleration to Christians, which encouraged the rapid growth of Christianity. He built a new capital on the Bosporus, which made the eastern part of the empire the center of power
Explain the military, political, and social reasons for the "fall" of Rome
Germanic invasions weakened the empire. The Roman government became corrupt and authoritarian, thereby losing support of the people. The empire was divided when it was under attack. Heavy taxes caused widespread poverty, and there was a decline in social values such as patriotism.
What role did geography play in the development of early civilizations?
The first cities rose in river valleys, which are locations where the physical conditions favored farming and farmer could produce a surplus of food. The cooperation necessary to control the rivers' waters, that is, to stop flooding and build irrigation canals, required leadership and cooperation, which contributed to the establishment of well-organized governments.
Compare the peoples of the Old Stone Age with the Peoples of the New Stone Age in terms of how they obtained their food.
The peoples of the Old Stone Age led a nomadic existence following herds of game animals and gathering wild fruits and nuts. The women gathered food and the men hunted. New Stone Age peoples lived in settled communities and farmed and herded domesticated animals for a living
Describe the role of rivers in the development of civilization
Rivers provided water for irrigation and spread rich silt across the valleys, which enabled farmers to produce the surplus of crops necessary to feed growing populations. Also, people had to work together to control the rivers' waters, which encouraged the development of well-organized governments