In which of the following reactions is the second molecule reduced?
NAD+ -> NADH
Which of the following is true of fermentation?
animals produce lactic acid by fermentation
Which process in eukaryotic cells will proceed normally whether oxygen (O2) is present or not?
What is released as a by-product of cellular respiration during the kreb's cycle?
Glycolysis occurs in the ____, the Krebs cycle occurs in the _____, and the electron transport chain occurs in the ____ membrane.
cytoplasm; mitochondria; mitochondrial
Humans require oxygen to....
serve as the final electron acceptor
How many ATP molecules does a eukaryotic cell gain during the aerobic respiration of one glucose molecule?
What role do hydrogen ions (H+) play in the electron transport chain?
they are pumped across the mitochondrial inner membrane against their concentration gradient (to where their concentration is high); as the H+ ions flow back to where their concentrations are low, they drive ATP synthase to form ATP
Muscle soreness associated with strenuous exercise is due...
a buildup of lactic acid
During the Krebs cycle, plants and some other organisms "fix" carbon-containing molecules, while other organisms eat those molecules and release CO2. During the carbon cycle, CO2 is produced during ____ and fixed during _____.
aerobic respiration; photosynthesis
Plant leaves appear green because they....
reflect and transmit the green wavelength of the visible light spectrum
What two colors of light drive most of photosynthesis?
red and blue
One of the functions of the stomata is to....
let CO2 into the leaf
Where do the light dependent reactions occur?
Which of the following statements is true?
the shortest wavelength of light is the ultraviolet ray, which is the highest energy
Both photosynthesis and cellular respiration rely on electron carrier molecules to provide electrons to ultimately help produce ATP. In photosynthesis, the source of electrons is ____ and in cellular respiration the source of electrons is ____.
What is the primary function of the light reactions of photosynthesis?
to produce ATP and NADPH
During the calvin cycle, plants...
fix CO2 into sugar
What is photorespiration?
when the enzyme rubisco binds CO2 during the calvin cycle
What principles lie at the core of evolutionary theory?
natural selection and common descent with modifications
Darwin and Wallace both realized that most species produce many more offspring than is necessary to maintain a constant population. What is the fate of the excess individuals?
the more favorable forms survive and reproduce, but the others do not
Pharyngeal slits present in the embryos of organisms as diverse as fish, chickens, and humans. Why would organisms as different as these have similar embyronic structures?
the organisms shared a common ancestor whose embryos had pharyngeal slits
The ultimate source of genetic differences among species is....
Animals use auricular muscles to swivel their ears to home in on sounds. Humans have auricular muscles but we can't turn our ears. So why do humans have auricular muscles?
they are vestigial structures we inherited from mammalian ancestors
Which of the following statements about the life of Charles Darwin is FALSE?
the captain of the beagle was alfred wallace
How old is the Earth? When did life begin?
4.5 billion years ago; 3.6 billion years ago
What kind of organisms gave rise to whales?
In science, a theory is....
an overarching principle supported by many lines of evidence
Which of the following statements would Lamarck agree with?
giraffes got their long necks by stretching and passing this acquired characteristic to their offspring
Which of the following is consistent with a modern understanding of evolution?
there is variation among individuals in a population
Birds with extravagant plumage may be able to pass their genes to the next generation better than drab birds because....
they are more likely to attract a mate
All of the following are forces that can change allele frequency in a population except...
If within a large population no mutations occur, no migration occurs, all matings are random, and each individual has an equal chance of reproducing, which of the following will probably happen?
no evolution will occur
Organisms that can interbreed with each other in nature but are genetically isolated from all other organisms are a....
A small population of deer is introduced to an island. All the males have 11 to 13 points on their antlers. If after several generations most males have antlers with 20 points, this development will have been the result of....
A small population of deer is introduced to an island. All the males have 11 to 13 points on their antlers. If after several generations 30 percent of the males have antlers with 9 to 11 points, 40 percent have antlers with 15 to 17 points, and 20 percent have antlers with 12 to 14 points, this development will have been the result of....
A population becomes isolated from other populations of the same species, and then genetic divergence occurs that prevents them from breeding with other populations. What has happened?
The great dane and the chihuahua are both domestic dogs, the same species. However, mating between them is limited by....
"Speciation may occur because of accumulation of many minor genetic changes in a population over time." This statement is best associated with...
In a population with two alleles, A and a, the frequency of a is 0.6. What is the frequency of heterozygotes if the population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?
A bottleneck may be dangerous to a population because...
genetic variability is diminished
Which of these definitions of species most closely fits the biological species concept?
members of the same species can mate and produce fertile offspring
Blue-footed boobies of the galapagos will mate only after a very specific courtship display on the part of the male. He high-steps to advertise his bright blue feet. What isolating mechanism discourages mating outside species?
"Speciation may occur rapidly and is caused by a few genetic changes in important genes." This statement is best associated with....
Which of these is a correct order of taxonomic categories from less specific to more specific?
domain, kingdom, phylum, order, class, family, genus
A common means of speciation in plants but not in animals is...
Which of the following possibilities is the best indicator of an organism's evolutionary fitness?
the number of offspring it produces over its lifetime that survive to breed
An organelle that probably evolved from a prokaryotic organism that moved inside and began to live within a eukaryotic cell is....
What is the chromosomal evidence that chimps and humans have a common ancestor?
human chromosome #2 is the result of the fusion of two ancestor primate chromosomse