Civics Topic 2.1 Origins of American Political Ideals
Terms in this set (18)
The basic principle of American government, which states that government is restricted in what it may do, and each individual has rights that government cannot take away.
The first permanent English settlement in North America; founded in 1607 in Virginia and named after King James I. The founding of Jamestown gave England an entry into the competition for the Americas, which Spain had dominated since the voyages of Christopher Columbus in the late fifteenth century.
The system of government in which public policies are made by officials selected by the voters and held accountable in periodic elections. (Democracy is the form of government where supreme authority rests with the people.)
King of England from 1199 to 1216. Soon after John (1167-1216) became king, war broke out between England and France. After several significant losses, taxes soared, and the monarchy became ruthless in its governing. This angered the barons, who forced John to sign the Magna Carta in 1215.
The Great Charter forced upon King John of England by his barons in 1215; established that the power of the monarchy was not absolute and guaranteed trial by jury and due process of law to the nobility.
The doctrine that holds that the government must act fairly and in accord with established rules in all that it does.
The king of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 1625 to 1649. Charles I (1600-1649) ruled with strict authority, and his quarrels with Parliament triggered a civil war. In 1649, Charles was found guilty of treason and executed.
Petition of Right
The document prepared by Parliament and signed by King Charles I of England in 1628; challenged the idea of the divine right of kings and declared that even the monarch was subject to the laws of the land.
William and Mary of Orange
King William III (1650-1702) and Queen Mary II (1662-1694) ruled jointly as king and queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 1689 to 1702 (Queen Mary died in 1694, but William continued to rule until 1702). Mary was the daughter of King James II, which meant that her Dutch husband could become co-ruler of England after he overthrew James's government.
The events that led to Parliament in 1688 inviting William and Mary of Orange to peacefully replace King James II on condition that they recognize the authority of Parliament and the rights of individuals; with the signing of the Bill of Rights, the Glorious Revolution helped calm the centuries-long struggle for supremacy between the monarchy and Parliament in England.
English Bill of Rights
The document written by Parliament and agreed to by William and Mary of England in 1689, designed to prevent abuse of power by English monarchs; forms the basis for much in American government and politics today.
King George II
George II (1683-1760) was king of Great Britain from 1727 to 1760. The colony of Georgia was named in his honor after he signed a charter granting the colony to its twenty trustees in 1732. King George thought the colony would be an important buffer between the Spanish-controlled lands to the south and the other English colonies to the north.
A city's basic law, its constitution; a written grant of authority from a king.
An adjective describing a legislative body composed of two chambers
Something organized by a proprietor, such as a person to whom a king had made a grant of land.
George Calvert, Lord Baltimore
A member of Parliament who founded Maryland as a haven for Catholics, Calvert (1578 or 1579-1632) came to North America in 1628 but was not accepted due to his religion. He returned to England and requested a royal charter to establish a colony where he could practice his religion. The charter was granted in 1632, shortly after his death.
An English Quaker leader who advocated for religious freedom, Penn (1644-1718) came to North America in 1682 and established the colony of Pennsylvania as a haven for Quakers and other religious minorities.
An adjective describing a legislative body with one chamber (such as Nebraska).
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THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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Civics Topic 2.1 Origins of American Political Ideals, 2.2 Independence