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Chapter 3: Bio Transcription and RNA Processing
Terms in this set (34)
In RNA, the base __ instead of T pairs with A. RNA contains the sugar ribose instead of deoxyribose ( has an oh where DNA has an h)
the enzymes that copy RNA from DNA template are___. The one that transcribes protein-coding genes in eukayotes is___.
RNA polymerase II
RNA polymerase II begins at sequences called ___ where it opens a short region of the DNA.
general transcription factors bind to ___; transcriptional activator proteins "regulatory transcription factors" bind to ____.
Through the looping of DNA, transcriptional activator proteins, group of proteins called mediator complex, RNA Pol II and general transcription factors are brought into close proximity, allowing transcription to proceed .
*** Incoming ribonucleotides are accepted if they correctly base pair with the template DNA; the 3' OH of the growing strand attacks the high energy phosphate bond of the incoming ribonucleotide, providing energy to drive the reaction. The two phosphates of the incoming ribonucleotide are released as ___.
**** review slide 6
the nontemplate strand is called the ____ because it contains the DNA version of the protein code in mRNA
(relative to RNA, the nontemplate strand is the same as RNA except T instead of U).
the template strand is called the
noncoding/antisense (relative to RNA, the templates strand is the compliment of DNA strand)
In prokayotes RNA synthesis continues until a ___ is reached. RNA polymerase then releases DNA and completed RNA.
In bacteria, transcription and translation occur in the ___. In eukaryotes, transcription occurs in the ___ and translation occurs in the ___.
*** modifications of primary transcript in nucleus -- review
1. " G cap" 5' cap on eukaryotic messenger RNA consists of 7-methylguanosine attached in a 5' to 5' phosphate linkage.
2. Poly A Tail added to the 3' end needed for export of mRNA to cytoplasm.
(additional RNA made that is not capped or tails is degraded.
3. RNA Splicing: Introns cut out of primary transcript and exons joined to make mRNA that codes for proteins. Splicing is done by complexes called small nuclear ribonucleoproteins particles (snurps)
1. branch site attacks donor site, forming a loop
2. donor site attacks acceptor site releasing a loop and tail called "lariat" that breaks down into individual nucleotides
3. Spliced eons are adjacent in processed RNA
allows cell to make mRNA encoding different proteins from the same gene
each mRNA can be used as template for many round of protein synthesis; mRNA levels influence how much of particle protein is made. mRNA level controlled both by frequency of ___and by rate of ___
transcription of gene
rate of degradation of mRNA is often controlled by sequences in __
Recommended textbook explanations
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