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AP Human Geography Unit 3: Cultural Geography: ALL VOCABULARY (CNT13)
Terms in this set (49)
The knowledge, attitudes, and habitual behavior shared and transmitted by the members of a society.
Cultural traits such as dress modes, dwellings, traditions, and institutions of usually small, traditional communities.
Cultural traits such as dress, diet and music that identify and are part of today's changeable, urban-based, media-influenced western societies.
A group of people in a particular place who see themselves as a collective or a community (culture), who work to preserve those traits and customs in order to claim uniqueness and to distinguish themselves from others.
The art, housing, clothing, sports, dances, foods, and other similar items constructed or created by a group of people.
Non Material Culture
The beliefs, practices, aesthetics, and values of a group of people.
A form of diffusion in which an idea or innovation spreads by passing first among the most connected places or peoples, then to the masses.
The area where an idea or cultural trait originates.
The process through which people lose cultural traits such as dress, speech particularities, or mannerisms, when they come in contact with another society or culture. (Often forcibly removed)
A practice routinely followed by a group of people.
The process by which cultures adopt customs and knowledge from other cultures and use them for their own benefit.
An older culture reinvigorated in a new culture in order to keep the old traditions alive.
A neighborhood in which a local culture can practice its customs.
Occurs when one culture takes another's cultural traditions in order to sell them for a profit.
How real a stereotype is when compared to an actual local culture.
The more distance diffused, the less spread.
Time Space Compression
The term for when diffusion hits different places at different rates/times.
When people within a place start to produce an aspect of popular culture themselves, doing so in the context of their local culture and making it their own.
The visible imprint of human activity and culture on the landscape.
The loss of uniqueness of place in the cultural landscape so that one place looks like the next.
The process by which people in a local place mediate and alter regional, national, and global processes.
A set of sounds, combination of sounds, and symbols that are used for communication.
The variant of a language that a country's political and intellectual elite seek to promote as the norm for use in schools, government, the media, and other aspects of public life.
Local or regional charactereistics of a language. A dialect, in addition to pronunciation variation, has distinctive grammar and vocabulary.
A geographic boundary where a particular linguistic feature occurs.
The ability of two people to understand each other when speaking.
A set of contiguous dialects in which the dialects nearest to each other at any place in the chain are most closely related.
Group of languages with a shared, but fairly distant, origin.
Divisions within a language family where the commonalities are more diffinite and the origin is more recent.
Slight change in a word across languages within a subfamily or through a language family.
Linguistic hypothesis proposing the existence of an ancestral Indo-European language that is the hearth of the ancient Latin, Greek, and Sanskrit languages which hearth would link modern languages from Scandinavia to North Africa and from North America through parts of Asia to Australia.
The tracking of sound shifts and hardening of consonants "backward" toward the original language.
Language without any native speakers.
Technique using the vocabulary of an extinct language to re-create the language that proceeded the extinct language.
New languages are formed when a language breaks into dialects due to a lack of spatial interaction among speakers of the language and continued isolation.
The collapsing of two languages into one because of spatial interaction of peoples with different languages.
Hypothesis developed by British scholar Colin Renfrew wherein he proposed that three areas in and near the first agricultural hearth, the Fertile Crescent, gave rise to three language families: Europe's Indo-European languages (from Anatolia(present-day Turkey)); North African and Arabian languages (from the western arc of the Fertile Crescent); and the languages in present-day Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India (from the eastern arc of the Fertile Crescent)
One major theory of how Proto-Indo-European diffused into Europe which holds that the early speakers of Proto-Indo-European spread westward on horseback, overpowering earlier inhabitants and beginning the diffusion and differentiation of Indo-European tongues.
Languages (French, Spanish, Italian, Romanian, and Portuguese) that lie in the areas that were once controlled by the Roman Empire but were not subsequently overwhelmed.
Languages (English, German, Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish) that reflect the expansion of peoples out of Northern Europe to the west and south.
Languages (Russian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Ukrainian, Slovenian, Serbo-Croatian, and Bulgarian) that developed as Slavic people migrated from a base in present-day Ukraine close to 2000 years ago.
Refers to a "common language," a language used among speakers of different languages for the purposes of trade and commerce.
Originally consisted of a mixture of Italian, French, Greek, Spanish, and even some Arabic.
When parts of two or more languages are combined in a simplified structure and vocabulary.
A language that began as a pidgin language but was later adopted as the mother tongue by a people in place of their mother tongue.
Countries in which only one language is spoken.
Countries in which more than one language is spoken.
In multilingual countries the language selected to promote internal cohesion; usually the language of the courts and government.
The language used most commonly around the world; defined on the basis of either the number of speakers of the language, or prevalence of use in commerce and trade.
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