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chapter 8 judicial branch vocabulary

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jurisdiction
a court's authority to hear and decide cases
exclusive jurisdiction
authority of only federal courts to hear and decide cases
concurrent jurisdiction
authority for both state and federal courts to hear and decide cases
constitutional
in accordance with the constitution
judicial review
the power of the Supreme Court to say whether any federal, state, or local law or government action goes against the Constitution
docket
a court's calendar, showing the schedule of cases it is to hear
brief
a written document explaining the position of one side or the other in a case
majority opinion
a statement that expresses the views of the majority of the Supreme Court justices regarding a case
dissenting opinion
a statement written by a justice who disagrees with the majority opinion, presenting his or her opinion
concurring opinion
a statement written by a justice who votes with the majority, but for different reasons
state decisis
the practice of using earlier judicial rulings as a basis for deciding cases
district courts
federal courts where trials are held and lawsuits are begun
original jurisdiction
the authority to hear cases for the first time
appeals courts
a court that reviews decisions made in lower district courts
appellate jurisdiction
the authority of a court to hear a case appealed from a lower court
circuit
the area of jurisdiction of a federal court of appeals
remand
to send a case back to a lower court to be tried again
opinion
a detailed explanation of the legal thinking behind a court's decision in a case
precedent
a ruling that is used as the basis for a judicial decision in a later, similar case
court of appeals
the federal court that hears only cases appealed from the lower district courts or from federal regulatory agencies
civil case
a legal dispute that does not involve criminal charges
subpoena
a court order requiring a person to appear and testify in court
suit
a complaint that is made to the court
criminal case
a case in which juries decide whether people have committed crimes
court martial
a trial before a panel of military officers
magistrate
the official in a district court who issues court orders and determines whether cases should be brought to trial
marshall
the district court official who serves subpoenas and arrests and delivers defendants to court
inferior court
courts of lower authority