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A pot sitting on a hot burner.


How the inside of a greenhouse works.


Touching a metal spoon that is sitting in a pot of boiling water


Using a heating blanket to get warm


A person placing their cold hands over a warm fire


A person placing their hand over a hot burner


Lying out in the sun to get a tan


Putting your wet shoes on a floor vent to dry them faster


Picking up a hot cup of coffee


Macaroni rising and falling in a pot of boiling water

thermal energy

produced by the total energy of the particles that make up an object


all atoms have thermal heat energy because the atoms or molecules that make matter are in constant motion


average motion of the atoms and molecules that we sense

heat energy

the energy that flows due to temperature differences;always transferred from warmer to cooler substances

conduction, convection, radiation

ways to heat the atmosphere


transfer of energy through matter using direct contact

poor conductor


good conductor



energy is transferred by direct contact


heat transfer by the movement of mass from one place to another;can take place only in liquids and gases


moves about the planet heat gained by conduction and radiation from the sun;heating of the Earth isn't even


only way heat is transferred that can move through the relative emptiness of space

conduction and convection

require motion of molecules like air or water to move heat


the transfer of heat by the actual movement of warmed energy in a gas or liquid by movement of currents. (It can also happen in some solids, like sand)


electromagnetic waves that directly transport energy through space;sunlight is a form of this that brings heat to our planet without the aid of anything


energy is transferred by the mass motion of molecules


energy is transferred by electromagnetic radiation


the transfer of heat within a substance by direct contact


transfer of heat by physical movement of the heated substance itself (vertical movement)


transfer of heat from the Sun to the Earth's atmosphere


transfer of heat from the Earth's surface to the Earth's atmosphere


causes some of the Earth's heat to be lost back into space


main driving force for the transfer of heat between air masses

cloudy days

Clouds reflect the sun's heat away from the Earth, thus it makes the day cooler


created by the Earth from some of the heat from the sun

Cloudy nights

clouds form a blanket which keeps the heat from escaping back into the atmosphere. The heat stays in keeping us warmer.

Clear nights

heat from the Earth is able to escape back into the atmosphere;cooler nights

clear days

no clouds to reflect the sun's heat away from the Earth; day is warmer

Conduction is...

heat transfer through contact

why do different metals conduct heat different rates

different materials have different conductivites

most conductive to least conductive metal

Copper, Aluminum, Brass, Steel

Heat energy can be transfered in three ways

Conduction, Convection, Radiation

Conduction occurs between objects in

direct contact

Thermal Conduction

transfer of energy as heat through a material

Conduction takes place when objects are in direct contact are

different temperatures

Convection results from the movement of

warm fluids


movement of matter due to differences in density that are caused by temp. variations can result in transfer of energy as heat

Radiation does not require

physical contact


energy that is transferred as electromagnetic waves, such as visible light and infrared waves


material which energy can be easily transferred as heat

Material thats a good conductor

cooking Pans


material that transfers energy poorly

Material thats good insulator

warm clothing

Energy transferred through partical collisions


Why are gases poor conductors

Their particals are so far apart

What makes a substance a good or poor conductor depends in part on

how much energy is required to change the temperature of the substance by certain amount

Specific heat is a characteristic

physical property

Specific heat of any substance is the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of

1 kg of that substance by 1K

Which substance shown has the highest specific heat


Thermal Expansion

Matter expanding when its temperature is raised.


Preventing heat from flowing in or out of a material.


Transfer of energy by the flow of a liquid or a gas.


Molecules of energy travel through a solid.

Potential Energy

Energy stored in an object or material.


The changing of a solid (ice cube) to a liquid (water).

Kinetic Energy

The energy of a moving object.


The changing of a liquid to a gas.


The changing of a gas to a liquid.


The vaporization of molecules from the surface of a liquid.


The transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves.


The changing of a liquid (water) to a solid (ice cube).


Bubbles of vapor escape from a liquid as a result of heating.

What are the 2 forms of energy?

1. Potential

What are the three main types of heat transfer?

Conduction, convection, radiation


Energy is passed from atom to atom through direct contact


Method of heat transfer of thermal energy by fluid circulation of the movement of atoms


Transfer of heat through electromagnetic radiations

Name two examples of conduction

Your hand touching a hot dish, You burn your hand

Name two examples of convection

a heater, boiling water

Name two examples of radiation

the sun on your skin, warmth of the fire

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