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Units 1 and 2 study guide. I recommend you use the flashcards instead of the Quizlet learning game.

What are three continents around the Arabian Peninsula?

Europe, Africa, and Asia

What are the bodies of water around the Arabian Peninsula?

Persian Gulf, the Arabian sea, and the Gulf of Aden

Why is the geography in the Arabian Peninsula important?

The geography in the Arabian Peninsula is important because it allows trade to pass through the peninsula

What are four types of terrain in the Arabian Peninsula?

Deserts, plains, oases, and mountains

What are adaptations used in the deserts?

Inhabitants are nomads, use camels, and have loose clothes to overcompensate for their environment

What are adaptations used in oases?

Inhabitants are sedentary, grow crops, and use date palms for construction to overcompensate for their environment

What are adaptations used in the plains?

Inhabitants built irrigation systems, grow crops, and trade on the coastal plain to overcompensate for their environment

What are adaptations used in the mountains?

Inhabitants used terraces to farm, made irrigation systems, built mud houses, and fertilized their land to make fit for vegetation to overcompensate for their environment

Where did Muhammad find out he was a prophet?

In a cave while he was praying

How did Muhammad find out he was a prophet?

The angel Gabriel told him that he was the messenger of God

What did Muhammad call Christians and Jews?

The People of the Book

Why did Muhammad call them this?

Because Jews, Christians, and Muslims all believed in the same God

What are the two sects of Islam?

Sunnis and the Shi'a

What do the Sunnis believe?

Anyone could take the throne after Muhammad's death

What do the Shi'a believe?

Only Muhammad's relatives can take the throne after his death

what is the significance of the Ka'ba?

It's a shrine where Muhammad and his Muslim followers destroyed idols in Makkah and rededicated the shrine to Allah

What is polytheism?

Belief in more than one god

What is monotheism?

Belief in one god

What is the Qur'an?

The holy book of Islam

What are the five pillars of faith?

Shahadah, Salat, Zakat, Siyam, and Hajj

What is Shahadah?

Declaration of faith in God and Muhammad as God's messenger

What is Salat?

Daily prayer

What is Zakat?

Giving wealth to the poor

What is Siyam?

Fasting during Ramadan

What is Hajj?

Pilgrimage to the Ka'ba

What are three great Muslim cities?

Damascus, Jerusalem, and Kalisiya

What are mosques?

Centers of worship for Muslims

What are minarets?

Tall towers of mosques

Who are imams?

Leaders of prayer in a mosque

What is jihad?

Struggle in pleasing God

What is lesser jihad?

External struggle in pleasing God

What is greater jihad?

Internal struggle in pleasing God

What are the contributions Muslims made to bookmaking and literature?

Promotion of illustrating books and introduced mysticism

What are contributions Muslims made to science and technology?

The study of zoology, astronomy, and certain irrigation systems

What are contributions Muslims made to geography and navigation?

Accurate maps, first encyclopedia on traveling, and theories on Earth's size

What are contributions Muslims made to math?

Algebra, the concept of zero, and the promotion of Arabic numbers

What are contributions Muslims made to medicine?

Pharmacology, painkillers, concept of surgery, and the promotion of hospitals

What are contributions Muslims made to education?

Theories on faith and immortal souls, and the promotion of centers of learning

What are contributions Muslims made to art and music?

Calligraphy, textiles, and conservatories

What are contributions Muslims made to recreation?

Polo and Chess

Which group invaded Palestine?

Seljuk Turks

Which Christian group did this worry?

The Christians in the east

Why did this worry the Christians?

Because the group threatened the Byzantine empire and the Holy Land (Jerusalem)

What was the first crusade?

Christians were let into Jerusalem's nearby city and surrounded Jerusalem, and killed Jews and Muslims inside

What was the second crusade?

Christians go on another crusade when Muslims capture one of their lands, Edessa. Muslims keep the Christians away, making the crusade a failure

What was the third crusade?

Muslims capture Jerusalem, causing the crusaders to go on another quest. The soldiers on both sides are too weak to fight, and Jerusalem agrees on a peace treaty to let the crusaders inside

What was the impact of the crusades for Arabia?

Introduced to new weapons and economic security

What was the impact of the crusades for Europe?

Population drop, Economic damages, introduced to Arabian products

Which group brought an end to the Byzantine empire?


Which city were the crusaders trying to reclaim for Christianity?


What is the Iberian Peninsula?

Peninsula in southwestern Europe that today is divided between Spain and Portugal

What is Inquisition?

A judicial body established by the Catholic church to combat heresy and other religious errors

What is a synagogue?

Jewish house of worship

What is antisemitism?

Prejudice towards Jews

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