Terms in this set (83)
positively charged particle, found in the nucleus
negatively charged particle, found outside the nucleus
no charge, found in the nucleus
the smallest portion of a substance that retains the properties of an element
same number of protons, increase in the number of neutrons
become more negative
become more positive
make up proteins
make up carbohydrates
make up lipids
fatty acids and glycerol
-by product is water
-water is added
glucose, fructose, galactose
-starch= plant storage
-glycogen= animal storage
-cellulose= plant outer covering-fiber
-chitin= animal outer covering (like crayfish)
-maltose= glucose & glucose (malt, alcohol)
-sucrose= glucose & fructose (sweetest)
-lactose= glucose & galactose (milk sugar)
-solid at room temp.
-have hydrogens all around the carbons
-have single bonds b/w the carbons
-derived from animals
-liquid at room temp.
-have at least one double bond b/w carbons
-have lost hydrogens
-derived from plants
takes place where the substrate would fit into the active site
attaches to a different part of the cell altering its shape
make their own food
live on organic compounds produced by other organisms
final electron acceptor is oxygen
final electron acceptor is an inorganic molecule
final electron acceptor is an organic molecule
-takes place in the cytoplasm
-produces 2 ATPs
-produces 2 NADHs
-if it stays anaerobic - goes into alcoholic fermentation or lactic acid fermentation
-pyruvate become Acetyl Co A
-takes place in the mitochondria
-reduces NAD+ to NADH
-produces 2 ATPs
electron transport system
-takes place in the cristae of the mitochondria
-produces 36 to 38 ATPs
-period of cell growth before DNA duplication
-period when interphase begins in a daughter cell
-period when DNA is duplicated
-period when interphase ends in the parent cell
-period after DNA is duplicated
-period prior to mitosis
-nuclear membrane disappears
-spindle fibers begin to appear
-chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell
-spindle fibers attach
chromosomes move to opposite poles
-nuclear membrane reappears
-two daughter cells are formed
reduces the number of chromosomes
trisomy of chromosome 21
trisomy of chromosome 13
trisomy of chromosome 18
extra X chromosomes in males
atypical X chromosome dosage in females
an extra Y chromosome in males
two of the same allele
hidden by dominant allele
total set of alleles an individual contains
occurs when multiple genes are involved in controlling the phenotype of a trait
refers to an allele which has more than one effect on phenotype
may be more than two alleles for a gene in a population
heterozygote is intermediate in phenotype
heterozygote shows some aspect of the phenotype of both homozygotes
behavior of gene products can change the ratio expected by independent assortment
avery, macleod, and mccarty
-identify the transforming principle
-avery identified the transforming substance involved in changing rough, bacteria to smooth DNA
found that bacteria cells can be transformed
hershey and chase
demonstrate that phage genetic material is DNA
credited with discovering nucleic acids
established most of the principal structural features of DNA
first to discover a nucleic acid and isolate it from fish sperm
found that the proportion of adenine equals the number of thymine and the proportion of cytosine equals that of guanine
franklin and wilkins
x-ray diffraction studies indicated that KNA molecules had a helical structure
watson and crick
provided a rational structural model for KNA using available data and building models
meselson and stahl
showed that DNA replication is semiconservative, resulting in two identical molecules, each of which is composed of one original strand and one new strand
In transcription, the nucleotide sequence CAT in DNA would specify __________ in MRNA.
A molecule of tRNA with the anticodon AAA will transport the amino acid__________.
The genetic code consists of groups of three nucleotides called __________.
Internal structures if vertebrates form from the _______ pole of the zygote.
Bones of the vertebrates are derived from embryonic __________.
The vertebrate notochord is located _________ the neural tube.
Vertebrate skin develops from _________.
Cells that migrate from somites form the ___________.
Vertebrate lungs are derived from ________.
The vertebrate nervous system is derived from_________.
When the vertebrate develops into a hollow ball it is called a _________.
How many genera are there in the horse family today?
Who documented that industrial melanism had occurred in England?
During artificial selection, selection pressure is exerted by __________.
The similarities b/w marsupials in Australia and placental mammals elsewhere are examples of _________.
The wing of a bat and the front flipper of a porpoise are examples of ________.
The vermiform appendix and the fingernails of manatees are examples of _________.
Evolutionary changes within a species are called ________.